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Two-layer fragile watermarking method secured with chaotic map for authentication of digital Holy Quran.

Khalil MS, Kurniawan F, Khan MK, Alginahi YM - ScientificWorldJournal (2014)

Bottom Line: Discrete wavelet transforms are applied to decompose the host image into wavelet prior to embedding the watermark in the wavelet domain.The watermarked wavelet coefficient is inverted back to spatial domain then the least significant bits is utilized to hide another watermark.A chaotic map is utilized to blur the watermark to make it secure against the local attack.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center of Excellence Information Assurance, King Saud University, P.O. Box 92144, Riyadh 11653, Saudi Arabia ; IT Research Center for the Holy Quran and Its Sciences (NOOR), Taibah University, Madinah 41477, Saudi Arabia.

ABSTRACT
This paper presents a novel watermarking method to facilitate the authentication and detection of the image forgery on the Quran images. Two layers of embedding scheme on wavelet and spatial domain are introduced to enhance the sensitivity of fragile watermarking and defend the attacks. Discrete wavelet transforms are applied to decompose the host image into wavelet prior to embedding the watermark in the wavelet domain. The watermarked wavelet coefficient is inverted back to spatial domain then the least significant bits is utilized to hide another watermark. A chaotic map is utilized to blur the watermark to make it secure against the local attack. The proposed method allows high watermark payloads, while preserving good image quality. Experiment results confirm that the proposed methods are fragile and have superior tampering detection even though the tampered area is very small.

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PSNR before and after JPEG compression, QF = [50,100].
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fig17: PSNR before and after JPEG compression, QF = [50,100].

Mentions: Finally, JPEG compression is tested on proposed method to evaluate the fragility against nonmalicious attack. The evaluation is considered from soft to modest JPEG compression with quality factor (QF) of JPEG compression within range {50, 100}. PSNR results are presented in Figure 17; the compression does not affect the image quality. The BER of the watermarked image following authentication process is measured. Figure 18 reported the BER results for n = 1 to n = 15. As expected, the BER value is high which means proposed method is fragile to JPEG compression with respect to any n value. Such fragility is contributed from embedding process that considers the coefficients matrix of the first wavelet subbands. The first wavelet subbands are altered during the JPEG compression. A proper value for n parameters can vary from one application to another. Nevertheless, it is suggested that n value equal to eight (8) is applicable for general digital watermarking purposes.


Two-layer fragile watermarking method secured with chaotic map for authentication of digital Holy Quran.

Khalil MS, Kurniawan F, Khan MK, Alginahi YM - ScientificWorldJournal (2014)

PSNR before and after JPEG compression, QF = [50,100].
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4060594&req=5

fig17: PSNR before and after JPEG compression, QF = [50,100].
Mentions: Finally, JPEG compression is tested on proposed method to evaluate the fragility against nonmalicious attack. The evaluation is considered from soft to modest JPEG compression with quality factor (QF) of JPEG compression within range {50, 100}. PSNR results are presented in Figure 17; the compression does not affect the image quality. The BER of the watermarked image following authentication process is measured. Figure 18 reported the BER results for n = 1 to n = 15. As expected, the BER value is high which means proposed method is fragile to JPEG compression with respect to any n value. Such fragility is contributed from embedding process that considers the coefficients matrix of the first wavelet subbands. The first wavelet subbands are altered during the JPEG compression. A proper value for n parameters can vary from one application to another. Nevertheless, it is suggested that n value equal to eight (8) is applicable for general digital watermarking purposes.

Bottom Line: Discrete wavelet transforms are applied to decompose the host image into wavelet prior to embedding the watermark in the wavelet domain.The watermarked wavelet coefficient is inverted back to spatial domain then the least significant bits is utilized to hide another watermark.A chaotic map is utilized to blur the watermark to make it secure against the local attack.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center of Excellence Information Assurance, King Saud University, P.O. Box 92144, Riyadh 11653, Saudi Arabia ; IT Research Center for the Holy Quran and Its Sciences (NOOR), Taibah University, Madinah 41477, Saudi Arabia.

ABSTRACT
This paper presents a novel watermarking method to facilitate the authentication and detection of the image forgery on the Quran images. Two layers of embedding scheme on wavelet and spatial domain are introduced to enhance the sensitivity of fragile watermarking and defend the attacks. Discrete wavelet transforms are applied to decompose the host image into wavelet prior to embedding the watermark in the wavelet domain. The watermarked wavelet coefficient is inverted back to spatial domain then the least significant bits is utilized to hide another watermark. A chaotic map is utilized to blur the watermark to make it secure against the local attack. The proposed method allows high watermark payloads, while preserving good image quality. Experiment results confirm that the proposed methods are fragile and have superior tampering detection even though the tampered area is very small.

Show MeSH