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Spiral ganglion stem cells can be propagated and differentiated into neurons and glia.

Diensthuber M, Zecha V, Wagenblast J, Arnhold S, Edge AS, Stöver T - Biores Open Access (2014)

Bottom Line: Importantly, spiral ganglion sphere cells maintain their major stem cell characteristics after repeated propagation, which enables the culture of spheres for an extended period of time.In this work, we also demonstrate that differentiated sphere-derived cell populations not only adopt the immunophenotype of mature spiral ganglion cells but also develop distinct ultrastructural features of neurons and glial cells.Thus, our work provides further evidence that self-renewing spiral ganglion stem cells might serve as a promising source for the regeneration of lost auditory neurons.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital Frankfurt am Main , Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany . ; Department of Otology and Laryngology, Harvard Medical School , Boston, Massachusetts. ; Eaton-Peabody Laboratory, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary , Boston, Massachusetts.

ABSTRACT
The spiral ganglion is an essential functional component of the peripheral auditory system. Most types of hearing loss are associated with spiral ganglion cell degeneration which is irreversible due to the inner ear's lack of regenerative capacity. Recent studies revealed the existence of stem cells in the postnatal spiral ganglion, which gives rise to the hope that these cells might be useful for regenerative inner ear therapies. Here, we provide an in-depth analysis of sphere-forming stem cells isolated from the spiral ganglion of postnatal mice. We show that spiral ganglion spheres have characteristics similar to neurospheres isolated from the brain. Importantly, spiral ganglion sphere cells maintain their major stem cell characteristics after repeated propagation, which enables the culture of spheres for an extended period of time. In this work, we also demonstrate that differentiated sphere-derived cell populations not only adopt the immunophenotype of mature spiral ganglion cells but also develop distinct ultrastructural features of neurons and glial cells. Thus, our work provides further evidence that self-renewing spiral ganglion stem cells might serve as a promising source for the regeneration of lost auditory neurons.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Scanning electron microscopic observation of sphere-derived cell populations reveals the distinct morphology of neuron-like and glia-like cells. Note the bipolar appearance of the neuron-like cell (arrow) with two neurites growing on a monolayer composed of cells with the characteristics of glial cells (arrowhead) shown in (A). Close interaction of spiral ganglion stem cell-derived neuron-like cells is suggested by axosomatic (B) and dendro-dendritic (C) contacts. Scale bar=20 μm in A and 30 μm in B and C.
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f9: Scanning electron microscopic observation of sphere-derived cell populations reveals the distinct morphology of neuron-like and glia-like cells. Note the bipolar appearance of the neuron-like cell (arrow) with two neurites growing on a monolayer composed of cells with the characteristics of glial cells (arrowhead) shown in (A). Close interaction of spiral ganglion stem cell-derived neuron-like cells is suggested by axosomatic (B) and dendro-dendritic (C) contacts. Scale bar=20 μm in A and 30 μm in B and C.

Mentions: Our data raised the question whether these differentiated cells also acquired the distinct morphological features of neurons and glia cells. We therefore analyzed differentiated cell populations by scanning electron microscopy (Fig. 9A–C). Our ultrastructural analysis revealed the presence of neuron-like cells with outgrowth of cellular processes that appeared to be neurites. These neuron-like cells were typically surrounded by glia-like cells with a flat morphology (Fig. 9A). In addition, spiral ganglion stem cell–derived neuron-like cells formed various types of cellular contacts indicating a close cell–cell interaction (Fig. 9B,C). Our findings provide evidence that mature cells differentiated from spiral ganglion spheres in vitro not only express mature neural markers but also develop specific morphological features of mature spiral ganglion cells. Interestingly, cell differentiation only occurred when we plated whole spheres on a substrate. Differentiation of dissociated sphere cells, a commonly used method for differentiation of brain-derived neurospheres, was not possible because most cells died after a few days.


Spiral ganglion stem cells can be propagated and differentiated into neurons and glia.

Diensthuber M, Zecha V, Wagenblast J, Arnhold S, Edge AS, Stöver T - Biores Open Access (2014)

Scanning electron microscopic observation of sphere-derived cell populations reveals the distinct morphology of neuron-like and glia-like cells. Note the bipolar appearance of the neuron-like cell (arrow) with two neurites growing on a monolayer composed of cells with the characteristics of glial cells (arrowhead) shown in (A). Close interaction of spiral ganglion stem cell-derived neuron-like cells is suggested by axosomatic (B) and dendro-dendritic (C) contacts. Scale bar=20 μm in A and 30 μm in B and C.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4048968&req=5

f9: Scanning electron microscopic observation of sphere-derived cell populations reveals the distinct morphology of neuron-like and glia-like cells. Note the bipolar appearance of the neuron-like cell (arrow) with two neurites growing on a monolayer composed of cells with the characteristics of glial cells (arrowhead) shown in (A). Close interaction of spiral ganglion stem cell-derived neuron-like cells is suggested by axosomatic (B) and dendro-dendritic (C) contacts. Scale bar=20 μm in A and 30 μm in B and C.
Mentions: Our data raised the question whether these differentiated cells also acquired the distinct morphological features of neurons and glia cells. We therefore analyzed differentiated cell populations by scanning electron microscopy (Fig. 9A–C). Our ultrastructural analysis revealed the presence of neuron-like cells with outgrowth of cellular processes that appeared to be neurites. These neuron-like cells were typically surrounded by glia-like cells with a flat morphology (Fig. 9A). In addition, spiral ganglion stem cell–derived neuron-like cells formed various types of cellular contacts indicating a close cell–cell interaction (Fig. 9B,C). Our findings provide evidence that mature cells differentiated from spiral ganglion spheres in vitro not only express mature neural markers but also develop specific morphological features of mature spiral ganglion cells. Interestingly, cell differentiation only occurred when we plated whole spheres on a substrate. Differentiation of dissociated sphere cells, a commonly used method for differentiation of brain-derived neurospheres, was not possible because most cells died after a few days.

Bottom Line: Importantly, spiral ganglion sphere cells maintain their major stem cell characteristics after repeated propagation, which enables the culture of spheres for an extended period of time.In this work, we also demonstrate that differentiated sphere-derived cell populations not only adopt the immunophenotype of mature spiral ganglion cells but also develop distinct ultrastructural features of neurons and glial cells.Thus, our work provides further evidence that self-renewing spiral ganglion stem cells might serve as a promising source for the regeneration of lost auditory neurons.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital Frankfurt am Main , Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany . ; Department of Otology and Laryngology, Harvard Medical School , Boston, Massachusetts. ; Eaton-Peabody Laboratory, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary , Boston, Massachusetts.

ABSTRACT
The spiral ganglion is an essential functional component of the peripheral auditory system. Most types of hearing loss are associated with spiral ganglion cell degeneration which is irreversible due to the inner ear's lack of regenerative capacity. Recent studies revealed the existence of stem cells in the postnatal spiral ganglion, which gives rise to the hope that these cells might be useful for regenerative inner ear therapies. Here, we provide an in-depth analysis of sphere-forming stem cells isolated from the spiral ganglion of postnatal mice. We show that spiral ganglion spheres have characteristics similar to neurospheres isolated from the brain. Importantly, spiral ganglion sphere cells maintain their major stem cell characteristics after repeated propagation, which enables the culture of spheres for an extended period of time. In this work, we also demonstrate that differentiated sphere-derived cell populations not only adopt the immunophenotype of mature spiral ganglion cells but also develop distinct ultrastructural features of neurons and glial cells. Thus, our work provides further evidence that self-renewing spiral ganglion stem cells might serve as a promising source for the regeneration of lost auditory neurons.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus