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Spiral ganglion stem cells can be propagated and differentiated into neurons and glia.

Diensthuber M, Zecha V, Wagenblast J, Arnhold S, Edge AS, Stöver T - Biores Open Access (2014)

Bottom Line: Importantly, spiral ganglion sphere cells maintain their major stem cell characteristics after repeated propagation, which enables the culture of spheres for an extended period of time.In this work, we also demonstrate that differentiated sphere-derived cell populations not only adopt the immunophenotype of mature spiral ganglion cells but also develop distinct ultrastructural features of neurons and glial cells.Thus, our work provides further evidence that self-renewing spiral ganglion stem cells might serve as a promising source for the regeneration of lost auditory neurons.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital Frankfurt am Main , Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany . ; Department of Otology and Laryngology, Harvard Medical School , Boston, Massachusetts. ; Eaton-Peabody Laboratory, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary , Boston, Massachusetts.

ABSTRACT
The spiral ganglion is an essential functional component of the peripheral auditory system. Most types of hearing loss are associated with spiral ganglion cell degeneration which is irreversible due to the inner ear's lack of regenerative capacity. Recent studies revealed the existence of stem cells in the postnatal spiral ganglion, which gives rise to the hope that these cells might be useful for regenerative inner ear therapies. Here, we provide an in-depth analysis of sphere-forming stem cells isolated from the spiral ganglion of postnatal mice. We show that spiral ganglion spheres have characteristics similar to neurospheres isolated from the brain. Importantly, spiral ganglion sphere cells maintain their major stem cell characteristics after repeated propagation, which enables the culture of spheres for an extended period of time. In this work, we also demonstrate that differentiated sphere-derived cell populations not only adopt the immunophenotype of mature spiral ganglion cells but also develop distinct ultrastructural features of neurons and glial cells. Thus, our work provides further evidence that self-renewing spiral ganglion stem cells might serve as a promising source for the regeneration of lost auditory neurons.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Isolation of spheres from the spiral ganglion of early postnatal mice. Quantification of floating cell colonies with a maximum diameter ≥40 μm that form from dissociated spiral ganglion cells in the presence of growth factors and without growth factors (vehicle) after 7 days in a nonadherent petri dish. Data are the mean±SD from three independent experiments; **p<0.01 compared with vehicle (bovine serum albumin [BSA]). bFGF, basic fibroblast growth factor; EGF, epidermal growth factor; IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor-1; HS, heparan sulfate.
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f4: Isolation of spheres from the spiral ganglion of early postnatal mice. Quantification of floating cell colonies with a maximum diameter ≥40 μm that form from dissociated spiral ganglion cells in the presence of growth factors and without growth factors (vehicle) after 7 days in a nonadherent petri dish. Data are the mean±SD from three independent experiments; **p<0.01 compared with vehicle (bovine serum albumin [BSA]). bFGF, basic fibroblast growth factor; EGF, epidermal growth factor; IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor-1; HS, heparan sulfate.

Mentions: To systematically evaluate the neurosphere assay, which has been previously used to isolate inner ear stem cells,8–10,18,21,22 we analyzed the effects of EGF, IGF-1, bFGF, and heparan sulfate on sphere formation alone and in various combinations (Fig. 4). Sphere formation occurs at a very low level without growth factors. When we tested EGF, IGF-1, and bFGF as single factors, bFGF turned out to be the most potent stimulator of sphere formation. The highest number of spheres could be obtained when using EGF, IGF-1, bFGF, and heparan sulfate in combination. This condition was therefore used for all further sphere isolation experiments.


Spiral ganglion stem cells can be propagated and differentiated into neurons and glia.

Diensthuber M, Zecha V, Wagenblast J, Arnhold S, Edge AS, Stöver T - Biores Open Access (2014)

Isolation of spheres from the spiral ganglion of early postnatal mice. Quantification of floating cell colonies with a maximum diameter ≥40 μm that form from dissociated spiral ganglion cells in the presence of growth factors and without growth factors (vehicle) after 7 days in a nonadherent petri dish. Data are the mean±SD from three independent experiments; **p<0.01 compared with vehicle (bovine serum albumin [BSA]). bFGF, basic fibroblast growth factor; EGF, epidermal growth factor; IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor-1; HS, heparan sulfate.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4048968&req=5

f4: Isolation of spheres from the spiral ganglion of early postnatal mice. Quantification of floating cell colonies with a maximum diameter ≥40 μm that form from dissociated spiral ganglion cells in the presence of growth factors and without growth factors (vehicle) after 7 days in a nonadherent petri dish. Data are the mean±SD from three independent experiments; **p<0.01 compared with vehicle (bovine serum albumin [BSA]). bFGF, basic fibroblast growth factor; EGF, epidermal growth factor; IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor-1; HS, heparan sulfate.
Mentions: To systematically evaluate the neurosphere assay, which has been previously used to isolate inner ear stem cells,8–10,18,21,22 we analyzed the effects of EGF, IGF-1, bFGF, and heparan sulfate on sphere formation alone and in various combinations (Fig. 4). Sphere formation occurs at a very low level without growth factors. When we tested EGF, IGF-1, and bFGF as single factors, bFGF turned out to be the most potent stimulator of sphere formation. The highest number of spheres could be obtained when using EGF, IGF-1, bFGF, and heparan sulfate in combination. This condition was therefore used for all further sphere isolation experiments.

Bottom Line: Importantly, spiral ganglion sphere cells maintain their major stem cell characteristics after repeated propagation, which enables the culture of spheres for an extended period of time.In this work, we also demonstrate that differentiated sphere-derived cell populations not only adopt the immunophenotype of mature spiral ganglion cells but also develop distinct ultrastructural features of neurons and glial cells.Thus, our work provides further evidence that self-renewing spiral ganglion stem cells might serve as a promising source for the regeneration of lost auditory neurons.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital Frankfurt am Main , Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany . ; Department of Otology and Laryngology, Harvard Medical School , Boston, Massachusetts. ; Eaton-Peabody Laboratory, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary , Boston, Massachusetts.

ABSTRACT
The spiral ganglion is an essential functional component of the peripheral auditory system. Most types of hearing loss are associated with spiral ganglion cell degeneration which is irreversible due to the inner ear's lack of regenerative capacity. Recent studies revealed the existence of stem cells in the postnatal spiral ganglion, which gives rise to the hope that these cells might be useful for regenerative inner ear therapies. Here, we provide an in-depth analysis of sphere-forming stem cells isolated from the spiral ganglion of postnatal mice. We show that spiral ganglion spheres have characteristics similar to neurospheres isolated from the brain. Importantly, spiral ganglion sphere cells maintain their major stem cell characteristics after repeated propagation, which enables the culture of spheres for an extended period of time. In this work, we also demonstrate that differentiated sphere-derived cell populations not only adopt the immunophenotype of mature spiral ganglion cells but also develop distinct ultrastructural features of neurons and glial cells. Thus, our work provides further evidence that self-renewing spiral ganglion stem cells might serve as a promising source for the regeneration of lost auditory neurons.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus