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Damage of photoreceptor-derived cells in culture induced by light emitting diode-derived blue light.

Kuse Y, Ogawa K, Tsuruma K, Shimazawa M, Hara H - Sci Rep (2014)

Bottom Line: Our eyes are increasingly exposed to light from the emitting diode (LED) light of video display terminals (VDT) which contain much blue light.VDTs are equipped with televisions, personal computers, and smart phones.Murine cone photoreceptor-derived cells (661 W) were exposed to blue, white, or green LED light (0.38 mW/cm(2)).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Biofunctional Evaluation, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, 1-25-4 Daigaku-nishi, Gifu 501-1196, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Our eyes are increasingly exposed to light from the emitting diode (LED) light of video display terminals (VDT) which contain much blue light. VDTs are equipped with televisions, personal computers, and smart phones. The present study aims to clarify the mechanism underlying blue LED light-induced photoreceptor cell damage. Murine cone photoreceptor-derived cells (661 W) were exposed to blue, white, or green LED light (0.38 mW/cm(2)). In the present study, blue LED light increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, altered the protein expression level, induced the aggregation of short-wavelength opsins (S-opsin), resulting in severe cell damage. While, blue LED light damaged the primary retinal cells and the damage was photoreceptor specific. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, protected against the cellular damage induced by blue LED light. Overall, the LED light induced cell damage was wavelength-, but not energy-dependent and may cause more severe retinal photoreceptor cell damage than the other LED light.

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NAC suppressed blue LED light-induced caspase-3/7 activation and autophagy activation.(A) Measurement of caspase-3/7 activity by Caspase-Glo® 3/7 Assay kit. Activation of caspase-3/7 was observed after blue LED light exposure. NAC treatment significantly inhibited the activation. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 3 or 4). ** indicates p < 0.01 vs. vehicle; ## indicates p < 0.01 vs. control (one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test). (B) Western blots of LC3-II/LC3-I indicated an increase in the expression level after blue LED light exposure. NAC treatment significantly reduced the expression. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 6). * indicates p < 0.05 vs. vehicle; ## indicates p < 0.01 vs. control (one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test). The cropped blots are used in this Figure and the full-length blots are presented in Supplementary Figure S9.
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f7: NAC suppressed blue LED light-induced caspase-3/7 activation and autophagy activation.(A) Measurement of caspase-3/7 activity by Caspase-Glo® 3/7 Assay kit. Activation of caspase-3/7 was observed after blue LED light exposure. NAC treatment significantly inhibited the activation. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 3 or 4). ** indicates p < 0.01 vs. vehicle; ## indicates p < 0.01 vs. control (one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test). (B) Western blots of LC3-II/LC3-I indicated an increase in the expression level after blue LED light exposure. NAC treatment significantly reduced the expression. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 6). * indicates p < 0.05 vs. vehicle; ## indicates p < 0.01 vs. control (one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test). The cropped blots are used in this Figure and the full-length blots are presented in Supplementary Figure S9.

Mentions: We evaluated the caspase-3/7 activity by using Caspase-Glo® 3/7 Assay kit. NAC significantly inhibited the increase in caspase-3/7 activity at 12 h after blue LED light exposure (Figure 7A). Moreover, blue LED light-induced changes in the expression of an autophagosome marker, LC3, were evaluated by western blotting. Activation of autophagy is indicated by the conversion of LC3-I into LC3-II. LC3-II was markedly upregulated by blue LED light exposure; however, the conversion of LC3 was significantly decreased by treatment with 1 mM NAC (Figure 7B).


Damage of photoreceptor-derived cells in culture induced by light emitting diode-derived blue light.

Kuse Y, Ogawa K, Tsuruma K, Shimazawa M, Hara H - Sci Rep (2014)

NAC suppressed blue LED light-induced caspase-3/7 activation and autophagy activation.(A) Measurement of caspase-3/7 activity by Caspase-Glo® 3/7 Assay kit. Activation of caspase-3/7 was observed after blue LED light exposure. NAC treatment significantly inhibited the activation. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 3 or 4). ** indicates p < 0.01 vs. vehicle; ## indicates p < 0.01 vs. control (one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test). (B) Western blots of LC3-II/LC3-I indicated an increase in the expression level after blue LED light exposure. NAC treatment significantly reduced the expression. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 6). * indicates p < 0.05 vs. vehicle; ## indicates p < 0.01 vs. control (one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test). The cropped blots are used in this Figure and the full-length blots are presented in Supplementary Figure S9.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4048889&req=5

f7: NAC suppressed blue LED light-induced caspase-3/7 activation and autophagy activation.(A) Measurement of caspase-3/7 activity by Caspase-Glo® 3/7 Assay kit. Activation of caspase-3/7 was observed after blue LED light exposure. NAC treatment significantly inhibited the activation. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 3 or 4). ** indicates p < 0.01 vs. vehicle; ## indicates p < 0.01 vs. control (one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test). (B) Western blots of LC3-II/LC3-I indicated an increase in the expression level after blue LED light exposure. NAC treatment significantly reduced the expression. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 6). * indicates p < 0.05 vs. vehicle; ## indicates p < 0.01 vs. control (one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test). The cropped blots are used in this Figure and the full-length blots are presented in Supplementary Figure S9.
Mentions: We evaluated the caspase-3/7 activity by using Caspase-Glo® 3/7 Assay kit. NAC significantly inhibited the increase in caspase-3/7 activity at 12 h after blue LED light exposure (Figure 7A). Moreover, blue LED light-induced changes in the expression of an autophagosome marker, LC3, were evaluated by western blotting. Activation of autophagy is indicated by the conversion of LC3-I into LC3-II. LC3-II was markedly upregulated by blue LED light exposure; however, the conversion of LC3 was significantly decreased by treatment with 1 mM NAC (Figure 7B).

Bottom Line: Our eyes are increasingly exposed to light from the emitting diode (LED) light of video display terminals (VDT) which contain much blue light.VDTs are equipped with televisions, personal computers, and smart phones.Murine cone photoreceptor-derived cells (661 W) were exposed to blue, white, or green LED light (0.38 mW/cm(2)).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Biofunctional Evaluation, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, 1-25-4 Daigaku-nishi, Gifu 501-1196, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Our eyes are increasingly exposed to light from the emitting diode (LED) light of video display terminals (VDT) which contain much blue light. VDTs are equipped with televisions, personal computers, and smart phones. The present study aims to clarify the mechanism underlying blue LED light-induced photoreceptor cell damage. Murine cone photoreceptor-derived cells (661 W) were exposed to blue, white, or green LED light (0.38 mW/cm(2)). In the present study, blue LED light increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, altered the protein expression level, induced the aggregation of short-wavelength opsins (S-opsin), resulting in severe cell damage. While, blue LED light damaged the primary retinal cells and the damage was photoreceptor specific. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, protected against the cellular damage induced by blue LED light. Overall, the LED light induced cell damage was wavelength-, but not energy-dependent and may cause more severe retinal photoreceptor cell damage than the other LED light.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus