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Damage of photoreceptor-derived cells in culture induced by light emitting diode-derived blue light.

Kuse Y, Ogawa K, Tsuruma K, Shimazawa M, Hara H - Sci Rep (2014)

Bottom Line: Our eyes are increasingly exposed to light from the emitting diode (LED) light of video display terminals (VDT) which contain much blue light.VDTs are equipped with televisions, personal computers, and smart phones.Murine cone photoreceptor-derived cells (661 W) were exposed to blue, white, or green LED light (0.38 mW/cm(2)).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Biofunctional Evaluation, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, 1-25-4 Daigaku-nishi, Gifu 501-1196, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Our eyes are increasingly exposed to light from the emitting diode (LED) light of video display terminals (VDT) which contain much blue light. VDTs are equipped with televisions, personal computers, and smart phones. The present study aims to clarify the mechanism underlying blue LED light-induced photoreceptor cell damage. Murine cone photoreceptor-derived cells (661 W) were exposed to blue, white, or green LED light (0.38 mW/cm(2)). In the present study, blue LED light increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, altered the protein expression level, induced the aggregation of short-wavelength opsins (S-opsin), resulting in severe cell damage. While, blue LED light damaged the primary retinal cells and the damage was photoreceptor specific. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, protected against the cellular damage induced by blue LED light. Overall, the LED light induced cell damage was wavelength-, but not energy-dependent and may cause more severe retinal photoreceptor cell damage than the other LED light.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Blue LED light caused the primary retinal cell damage.(A) Primary retinal cells were exposed to blue LED light for 24 h. The cell viability was evaluated by the CCK-8 assay. Blue LED light decreased the primary retinal cell viability. (B) Blue LED light increased the ROS level in primary retinal cells. (C, D) Immunostaining of cleaved caspase-3. Blue LED light increased the cleaved caspase-3 positive cells compared to control. (E, F) Double immunostaining for S-opsin and cleaved caspase-3. Blue LED light increased the S-opsin and cleaved caspase-3 double positive cells (arrowhead). Data are expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 3 or 4). # indicates p < 0.05, ## indicates p < 0.01 vs. control (ANOVA). The scale bar represents 50 μm.
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f5: Blue LED light caused the primary retinal cell damage.(A) Primary retinal cells were exposed to blue LED light for 24 h. The cell viability was evaluated by the CCK-8 assay. Blue LED light decreased the primary retinal cell viability. (B) Blue LED light increased the ROS level in primary retinal cells. (C, D) Immunostaining of cleaved caspase-3. Blue LED light increased the cleaved caspase-3 positive cells compared to control. (E, F) Double immunostaining for S-opsin and cleaved caspase-3. Blue LED light increased the S-opsin and cleaved caspase-3 double positive cells (arrowhead). Data are expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 3 or 4). # indicates p < 0.05, ## indicates p < 0.01 vs. control (ANOVA). The scale bar represents 50 μm.

Mentions: To consider the blue LED light-induced retinal photoreceptor cell damage in detail, we used the primary retinal cells. In this protocol of primary cell culture, the rod photoreceptor cells were obtained about 60% of total cells in our previous report21. In this study, we confirmed the ratio of S-opsin positive cells was about 15%. Blue LED light decreased the primary retinal cell viability (Figure 5A). Blue LED light increased the ROS level in primary retinal cells (Figure 5B). Next, we performed the experiment to confirm that the cell damage induced by blue LED light exposure is the definite event in photoreceptor cells. Blue LED light increased the cleaved caspase-3 positive cells by immunostaining (Figure 5C, D). Cleaved caspase-3 implicates active caspase-3. Then, we performed double immunostaining for S-opsin and cleaved caspase-3. Blue LED light increased the S-opsin and cleaved caspase-3 double positive cells (Figure 5E, F).


Damage of photoreceptor-derived cells in culture induced by light emitting diode-derived blue light.

Kuse Y, Ogawa K, Tsuruma K, Shimazawa M, Hara H - Sci Rep (2014)

Blue LED light caused the primary retinal cell damage.(A) Primary retinal cells were exposed to blue LED light for 24 h. The cell viability was evaluated by the CCK-8 assay. Blue LED light decreased the primary retinal cell viability. (B) Blue LED light increased the ROS level in primary retinal cells. (C, D) Immunostaining of cleaved caspase-3. Blue LED light increased the cleaved caspase-3 positive cells compared to control. (E, F) Double immunostaining for S-opsin and cleaved caspase-3. Blue LED light increased the S-opsin and cleaved caspase-3 double positive cells (arrowhead). Data are expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 3 or 4). # indicates p < 0.05, ## indicates p < 0.01 vs. control (ANOVA). The scale bar represents 50 μm.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4048889&req=5

f5: Blue LED light caused the primary retinal cell damage.(A) Primary retinal cells were exposed to blue LED light for 24 h. The cell viability was evaluated by the CCK-8 assay. Blue LED light decreased the primary retinal cell viability. (B) Blue LED light increased the ROS level in primary retinal cells. (C, D) Immunostaining of cleaved caspase-3. Blue LED light increased the cleaved caspase-3 positive cells compared to control. (E, F) Double immunostaining for S-opsin and cleaved caspase-3. Blue LED light increased the S-opsin and cleaved caspase-3 double positive cells (arrowhead). Data are expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 3 or 4). # indicates p < 0.05, ## indicates p < 0.01 vs. control (ANOVA). The scale bar represents 50 μm.
Mentions: To consider the blue LED light-induced retinal photoreceptor cell damage in detail, we used the primary retinal cells. In this protocol of primary cell culture, the rod photoreceptor cells were obtained about 60% of total cells in our previous report21. In this study, we confirmed the ratio of S-opsin positive cells was about 15%. Blue LED light decreased the primary retinal cell viability (Figure 5A). Blue LED light increased the ROS level in primary retinal cells (Figure 5B). Next, we performed the experiment to confirm that the cell damage induced by blue LED light exposure is the definite event in photoreceptor cells. Blue LED light increased the cleaved caspase-3 positive cells by immunostaining (Figure 5C, D). Cleaved caspase-3 implicates active caspase-3. Then, we performed double immunostaining for S-opsin and cleaved caspase-3. Blue LED light increased the S-opsin and cleaved caspase-3 double positive cells (Figure 5E, F).

Bottom Line: Our eyes are increasingly exposed to light from the emitting diode (LED) light of video display terminals (VDT) which contain much blue light.VDTs are equipped with televisions, personal computers, and smart phones.Murine cone photoreceptor-derived cells (661 W) were exposed to blue, white, or green LED light (0.38 mW/cm(2)).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Biofunctional Evaluation, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, 1-25-4 Daigaku-nishi, Gifu 501-1196, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Our eyes are increasingly exposed to light from the emitting diode (LED) light of video display terminals (VDT) which contain much blue light. VDTs are equipped with televisions, personal computers, and smart phones. The present study aims to clarify the mechanism underlying blue LED light-induced photoreceptor cell damage. Murine cone photoreceptor-derived cells (661 W) were exposed to blue, white, or green LED light (0.38 mW/cm(2)). In the present study, blue LED light increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, altered the protein expression level, induced the aggregation of short-wavelength opsins (S-opsin), resulting in severe cell damage. While, blue LED light damaged the primary retinal cells and the damage was photoreceptor specific. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, protected against the cellular damage induced by blue LED light. Overall, the LED light induced cell damage was wavelength-, but not energy-dependent and may cause more severe retinal photoreceptor cell damage than the other LED light.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus