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Damage of photoreceptor-derived cells in culture induced by light emitting diode-derived blue light.

Kuse Y, Ogawa K, Tsuruma K, Shimazawa M, Hara H - Sci Rep (2014)

Bottom Line: Our eyes are increasingly exposed to light from the emitting diode (LED) light of video display terminals (VDT) which contain much blue light.VDTs are equipped with televisions, personal computers, and smart phones.Murine cone photoreceptor-derived cells (661 W) were exposed to blue, white, or green LED light (0.38 mW/cm(2)).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Biofunctional Evaluation, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, 1-25-4 Daigaku-nishi, Gifu 501-1196, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Our eyes are increasingly exposed to light from the emitting diode (LED) light of video display terminals (VDT) which contain much blue light. VDTs are equipped with televisions, personal computers, and smart phones. The present study aims to clarify the mechanism underlying blue LED light-induced photoreceptor cell damage. Murine cone photoreceptor-derived cells (661 W) were exposed to blue, white, or green LED light (0.38 mW/cm(2)). In the present study, blue LED light increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, altered the protein expression level, induced the aggregation of short-wavelength opsins (S-opsin), resulting in severe cell damage. While, blue LED light damaged the primary retinal cells and the damage was photoreceptor specific. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, protected against the cellular damage induced by blue LED light. Overall, the LED light induced cell damage was wavelength-, but not energy-dependent and may cause more severe retinal photoreceptor cell damage than the other LED light.

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The aggregation of S-opsin induced by blue LED light exposure.(A) Representative immunostaining images of S-opsin after LED light exposure for 24 h. Blue and white LED light-induced the perinuclear aggregation of S-opsin compared to control and green LED light. n = 4. (B) Representative immunostaining images of S-opsin shows that the S-opsin aggregated cells after blue LED light exposure for 3 or 6 h (arrowhead). (C) Quantitative analysis of immunostaining images. The ratio of the S-opsin aggregated cells was increased by blue LED light exposure for 3 or 6 h. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 3 or 4). # indicates p < 0.05 vs. control (one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's test). The scale bars represent 5 μm (A), 50 μm and 10 μm (B).
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f4: The aggregation of S-opsin induced by blue LED light exposure.(A) Representative immunostaining images of S-opsin after LED light exposure for 24 h. Blue and white LED light-induced the perinuclear aggregation of S-opsin compared to control and green LED light. n = 4. (B) Representative immunostaining images of S-opsin shows that the S-opsin aggregated cells after blue LED light exposure for 3 or 6 h (arrowhead). (C) Quantitative analysis of immunostaining images. The ratio of the S-opsin aggregated cells was increased by blue LED light exposure for 3 or 6 h. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 3 or 4). # indicates p < 0.05 vs. control (one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's test). The scale bars represent 5 μm (A), 50 μm and 10 μm (B).

Mentions: When compared to 661 W and NB1-RGB cell damage, 661 W cells were more damaged than NB1-RGB cells by blue LED light exposure (see Supplementary Fig. S3A online). This difference may be due to the exisitence of cone photoreceptor specific protein, S-opsin. S-opsin did not observe in NB1-RGB cells (see Supplementary Fig. S3B online). It has been reported that S-opsin is present in 661 W cells25. We evaluated whether LED light exposure caused the aggregation of S-opsin in 661 W cells by immunostaining in LED light exposure for 24 h. The perinuclear aggregation of S-opsin as observed in blue and white LED light exposed cells (Figure 4A). Green LED light did not cause the aggregation (Figure 4A). Next, we investigated whether blue LED light-induced the S-opsin aggregation during early stage. When the cells were exposed by blue LED light for 3 h or 6 h, S-opsin aggregated cells (arrowhead) were observed (Figure 4B). The graph shows the ratio of S-opsin aggregated cells to total cell numbers was increased by blue LED light exposure for 3 or 6 h (Figure 4C).


Damage of photoreceptor-derived cells in culture induced by light emitting diode-derived blue light.

Kuse Y, Ogawa K, Tsuruma K, Shimazawa M, Hara H - Sci Rep (2014)

The aggregation of S-opsin induced by blue LED light exposure.(A) Representative immunostaining images of S-opsin after LED light exposure for 24 h. Blue and white LED light-induced the perinuclear aggregation of S-opsin compared to control and green LED light. n = 4. (B) Representative immunostaining images of S-opsin shows that the S-opsin aggregated cells after blue LED light exposure for 3 or 6 h (arrowhead). (C) Quantitative analysis of immunostaining images. The ratio of the S-opsin aggregated cells was increased by blue LED light exposure for 3 or 6 h. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 3 or 4). # indicates p < 0.05 vs. control (one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's test). The scale bars represent 5 μm (A), 50 μm and 10 μm (B).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4048889&req=5

f4: The aggregation of S-opsin induced by blue LED light exposure.(A) Representative immunostaining images of S-opsin after LED light exposure for 24 h. Blue and white LED light-induced the perinuclear aggregation of S-opsin compared to control and green LED light. n = 4. (B) Representative immunostaining images of S-opsin shows that the S-opsin aggregated cells after blue LED light exposure for 3 or 6 h (arrowhead). (C) Quantitative analysis of immunostaining images. The ratio of the S-opsin aggregated cells was increased by blue LED light exposure for 3 or 6 h. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 3 or 4). # indicates p < 0.05 vs. control (one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's test). The scale bars represent 5 μm (A), 50 μm and 10 μm (B).
Mentions: When compared to 661 W and NB1-RGB cell damage, 661 W cells were more damaged than NB1-RGB cells by blue LED light exposure (see Supplementary Fig. S3A online). This difference may be due to the exisitence of cone photoreceptor specific protein, S-opsin. S-opsin did not observe in NB1-RGB cells (see Supplementary Fig. S3B online). It has been reported that S-opsin is present in 661 W cells25. We evaluated whether LED light exposure caused the aggregation of S-opsin in 661 W cells by immunostaining in LED light exposure for 24 h. The perinuclear aggregation of S-opsin as observed in blue and white LED light exposed cells (Figure 4A). Green LED light did not cause the aggregation (Figure 4A). Next, we investigated whether blue LED light-induced the S-opsin aggregation during early stage. When the cells were exposed by blue LED light for 3 h or 6 h, S-opsin aggregated cells (arrowhead) were observed (Figure 4B). The graph shows the ratio of S-opsin aggregated cells to total cell numbers was increased by blue LED light exposure for 3 or 6 h (Figure 4C).

Bottom Line: Our eyes are increasingly exposed to light from the emitting diode (LED) light of video display terminals (VDT) which contain much blue light.VDTs are equipped with televisions, personal computers, and smart phones.Murine cone photoreceptor-derived cells (661 W) were exposed to blue, white, or green LED light (0.38 mW/cm(2)).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Biofunctional Evaluation, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, 1-25-4 Daigaku-nishi, Gifu 501-1196, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Our eyes are increasingly exposed to light from the emitting diode (LED) light of video display terminals (VDT) which contain much blue light. VDTs are equipped with televisions, personal computers, and smart phones. The present study aims to clarify the mechanism underlying blue LED light-induced photoreceptor cell damage. Murine cone photoreceptor-derived cells (661 W) were exposed to blue, white, or green LED light (0.38 mW/cm(2)). In the present study, blue LED light increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, altered the protein expression level, induced the aggregation of short-wavelength opsins (S-opsin), resulting in severe cell damage. While, blue LED light damaged the primary retinal cells and the damage was photoreceptor specific. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, protected against the cellular damage induced by blue LED light. Overall, the LED light induced cell damage was wavelength-, but not energy-dependent and may cause more severe retinal photoreceptor cell damage than the other LED light.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus