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Damage of photoreceptor-derived cells in culture induced by light emitting diode-derived blue light.

Kuse Y, Ogawa K, Tsuruma K, Shimazawa M, Hara H - Sci Rep (2014)

Bottom Line: Our eyes are increasingly exposed to light from the emitting diode (LED) light of video display terminals (VDT) which contain much blue light.VDTs are equipped with televisions, personal computers, and smart phones.Murine cone photoreceptor-derived cells (661 W) were exposed to blue, white, or green LED light (0.38 mW/cm(2)).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Biofunctional Evaluation, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, 1-25-4 Daigaku-nishi, Gifu 501-1196, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Our eyes are increasingly exposed to light from the emitting diode (LED) light of video display terminals (VDT) which contain much blue light. VDTs are equipped with televisions, personal computers, and smart phones. The present study aims to clarify the mechanism underlying blue LED light-induced photoreceptor cell damage. Murine cone photoreceptor-derived cells (661 W) were exposed to blue, white, or green LED light (0.38 mW/cm(2)). In the present study, blue LED light increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, altered the protein expression level, induced the aggregation of short-wavelength opsins (S-opsin), resulting in severe cell damage. While, blue LED light damaged the primary retinal cells and the damage was photoreceptor specific. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, protected against the cellular damage induced by blue LED light. Overall, the LED light induced cell damage was wavelength-, but not energy-dependent and may cause more severe retinal photoreceptor cell damage than the other LED light.

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Changes in protein levels induced by blue LED light exposure.(A) Western blotting showed changes in the levels of phosphorylated NF-κB, p38, and ERK (p-NF-κB, p-p38, and p-ERK). The bands indicate protein expression levels at each 3 h (NF-κB), 6 h (p38), and 6 h (ERK) after LED light exposure. (B–D) Quantitative analysis of protein levels. Quantitative data of the groups of white LED and green LED exposure indicates 3 h (NF-κB), 6 h (p38), and 6 h (ERK) results. The phosphorylated NF-κB level is increased 3 h after exposure to blue LED light. The phosphorylated p38 level is increased 6 h after blue and white LED light exposure. The phosphorylated ERK level is decreased 6 h after blue LED light exposure. These changes were not observed after green LED light exposure. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 3 to 6). # indicates p < 0.05, ## indicates p < 0.01 vs. control (B, E, H; one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's test, F; ANOVA). The cropped blots are used in this Figure and the full-length blots are presented in Supplementary Figure S5–7.
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f3: Changes in protein levels induced by blue LED light exposure.(A) Western blotting showed changes in the levels of phosphorylated NF-κB, p38, and ERK (p-NF-κB, p-p38, and p-ERK). The bands indicate protein expression levels at each 3 h (NF-κB), 6 h (p38), and 6 h (ERK) after LED light exposure. (B–D) Quantitative analysis of protein levels. Quantitative data of the groups of white LED and green LED exposure indicates 3 h (NF-κB), 6 h (p38), and 6 h (ERK) results. The phosphorylated NF-κB level is increased 3 h after exposure to blue LED light. The phosphorylated p38 level is increased 6 h after blue and white LED light exposure. The phosphorylated ERK level is decreased 6 h after blue LED light exposure. These changes were not observed after green LED light exposure. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 3 to 6). # indicates p < 0.05, ## indicates p < 0.01 vs. control (B, E, H; one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's test, F; ANOVA). The cropped blots are used in this Figure and the full-length blots are presented in Supplementary Figure S5–7.

Mentions: ROS generation induces MAPK activation, and MAPK modulates inflammation, cell death and so on23. p38 MAPK is activated by light exposure1924. Western blotting was used to investigate the mechanism of photoreceptor-derived cell damage by LED light exposure at 2,500 lux. The protein expression of NF-κB, p38, and ERK were detected after LED exposure (Figure 3A–J). The level of activated NF-κB significantly increased at 3 h after blue LED light (Figure 3B), but not white or green LED light exposure (Figure 3C and 3D). The level of phosphorylated p38 MAPK significantly increased at 3 h, peaked at 6 h, and then declined to control levels at 12 h after blue LED light exposure and similarly increased at 6 h after white LED exposure (Figure 3E and 3F). In contrast, green LED light did not alter the levels of phosphorylated p38 MAPK (Figure 3G). Moreover, blue LED light reduced the levels of phosphorylated ERK after LED light exposure in a time-dependent manner (Figure 3H). White or green LED light did not alter the levels of phosphorylated ERK (Figure 3I and 3J).


Damage of photoreceptor-derived cells in culture induced by light emitting diode-derived blue light.

Kuse Y, Ogawa K, Tsuruma K, Shimazawa M, Hara H - Sci Rep (2014)

Changes in protein levels induced by blue LED light exposure.(A) Western blotting showed changes in the levels of phosphorylated NF-κB, p38, and ERK (p-NF-κB, p-p38, and p-ERK). The bands indicate protein expression levels at each 3 h (NF-κB), 6 h (p38), and 6 h (ERK) after LED light exposure. (B–D) Quantitative analysis of protein levels. Quantitative data of the groups of white LED and green LED exposure indicates 3 h (NF-κB), 6 h (p38), and 6 h (ERK) results. The phosphorylated NF-κB level is increased 3 h after exposure to blue LED light. The phosphorylated p38 level is increased 6 h after blue and white LED light exposure. The phosphorylated ERK level is decreased 6 h after blue LED light exposure. These changes were not observed after green LED light exposure. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 3 to 6). # indicates p < 0.05, ## indicates p < 0.01 vs. control (B, E, H; one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's test, F; ANOVA). The cropped blots are used in this Figure and the full-length blots are presented in Supplementary Figure S5–7.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4048889&req=5

f3: Changes in protein levels induced by blue LED light exposure.(A) Western blotting showed changes in the levels of phosphorylated NF-κB, p38, and ERK (p-NF-κB, p-p38, and p-ERK). The bands indicate protein expression levels at each 3 h (NF-κB), 6 h (p38), and 6 h (ERK) after LED light exposure. (B–D) Quantitative analysis of protein levels. Quantitative data of the groups of white LED and green LED exposure indicates 3 h (NF-κB), 6 h (p38), and 6 h (ERK) results. The phosphorylated NF-κB level is increased 3 h after exposure to blue LED light. The phosphorylated p38 level is increased 6 h after blue and white LED light exposure. The phosphorylated ERK level is decreased 6 h after blue LED light exposure. These changes were not observed after green LED light exposure. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 3 to 6). # indicates p < 0.05, ## indicates p < 0.01 vs. control (B, E, H; one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's test, F; ANOVA). The cropped blots are used in this Figure and the full-length blots are presented in Supplementary Figure S5–7.
Mentions: ROS generation induces MAPK activation, and MAPK modulates inflammation, cell death and so on23. p38 MAPK is activated by light exposure1924. Western blotting was used to investigate the mechanism of photoreceptor-derived cell damage by LED light exposure at 2,500 lux. The protein expression of NF-κB, p38, and ERK were detected after LED exposure (Figure 3A–J). The level of activated NF-κB significantly increased at 3 h after blue LED light (Figure 3B), but not white or green LED light exposure (Figure 3C and 3D). The level of phosphorylated p38 MAPK significantly increased at 3 h, peaked at 6 h, and then declined to control levels at 12 h after blue LED light exposure and similarly increased at 6 h after white LED exposure (Figure 3E and 3F). In contrast, green LED light did not alter the levels of phosphorylated p38 MAPK (Figure 3G). Moreover, blue LED light reduced the levels of phosphorylated ERK after LED light exposure in a time-dependent manner (Figure 3H). White or green LED light did not alter the levels of phosphorylated ERK (Figure 3I and 3J).

Bottom Line: Our eyes are increasingly exposed to light from the emitting diode (LED) light of video display terminals (VDT) which contain much blue light.VDTs are equipped with televisions, personal computers, and smart phones.Murine cone photoreceptor-derived cells (661 W) were exposed to blue, white, or green LED light (0.38 mW/cm(2)).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Biofunctional Evaluation, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, 1-25-4 Daigaku-nishi, Gifu 501-1196, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Our eyes are increasingly exposed to light from the emitting diode (LED) light of video display terminals (VDT) which contain much blue light. VDTs are equipped with televisions, personal computers, and smart phones. The present study aims to clarify the mechanism underlying blue LED light-induced photoreceptor cell damage. Murine cone photoreceptor-derived cells (661 W) were exposed to blue, white, or green LED light (0.38 mW/cm(2)). In the present study, blue LED light increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, altered the protein expression level, induced the aggregation of short-wavelength opsins (S-opsin), resulting in severe cell damage. While, blue LED light damaged the primary retinal cells and the damage was photoreceptor specific. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, protected against the cellular damage induced by blue LED light. Overall, the LED light induced cell damage was wavelength-, but not energy-dependent and may cause more severe retinal photoreceptor cell damage than the other LED light.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus