Limits...
Patterns of nutrients' intake at six months in the northeast of Italy: a cohort study.

Pani P, Carletti C, Knowles A, Parpinel M, Concina F, Montico M, Cattaneo A - BMC Pediatr (2014)

Bottom Line: These consumed significantly higher quantities of commercial baby foods than breastfed infants.Contrary to what is recommended, 94% of infants were not exclusively breastfed and were given complementary foods at six months.The proportion of daily energy intake from complementary foods was around 50% higher than recommended and with significant differences between breastfed and non-breastfed infants, with possible consequences for future nutrition and health.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Health Services Research and International Health, Institute for Maternal and Child Health IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Via dell'Istria 65/1, 34137 Trieste, Italy. adriano.cattaneo@burlo.trieste.it.

ABSTRACT

Background: Adequate complementary feeding is recognized as an important predictor of health later in life. The objective of this study was to describe the feeding practices and nutrients' intake, and their association with breastfeeding at six months of age, in a cohort of infants enrolled at birth in the maternity hospital of Trieste, Italy.

Methods: Out of 400 infants enrolled at birth, 268 (67%) had complete data gathered through a 24-hour feeding diary on three separate days at six months, and two questionnaires administered at birth and at six months. Data from feeding diaries were used to estimate nutrients' intakes using the Italian food composition database included in the software. To estimate the quantity of breastmilk, information was gathered on the frequency and length of breastfeeds.

Results: At six months, 70% of infants were breastfed and 94% were given complementary foods. The average daily caloric intake was higher in non-breastfed (723 Kcal) than in breastfed infants (547 Kcal, p < 0.001) due to energy provided by complementary foods (321 vs. 190 Kcal, p < 0.001) and milk (363 vs. 301 Kcal, p = 0.007). Non-breastfed infants had also higher intakes of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. The mean intake of macronutrients was within recommended ranges in both groups, except for the higher protein intake in non-breastfed infants. These consumed significantly higher quantities of commercial baby foods than breastfed infants.

Conclusions: Contrary to what is recommended, 94% of infants were not exclusively breastfed and were given complementary foods at six months. The proportion of daily energy intake from complementary foods was around 50% higher than recommended and with significant differences between breastfed and non-breastfed infants, with possible consequences for future nutrition and health.

Show MeSH
Total energy (Tot E) and macronutrient intake (%) from complementary foods only in ABF (n = 175) and NBF (n = 77) infants (n = 252) by commercial and non commercial foods; all differences are significant (p < 0.001).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4048623&req=5

Figure 2: Total energy (Tot E) and macronutrient intake (%) from complementary foods only in ABF (n = 175) and NBF (n = 77) infants (n = 252) by commercial and non commercial foods; all differences are significant (p < 0.001).

Mentions: Complementary feeding was analysed distinguishing home made from commercial baby food and identifying the contribution of each of these in terms of nutrient intake. Overall, home-made food contributed more nutrients in both ABF and NBF infants. NBF infants consumed significantly higher quantities of commercial baby foods than ABF infants, with a consequent higher intake of macronutrients from these foods (p < 0.001). In particular, commercial baby foods represented the main source of carbohydrates in NBF infants (Figure 2). At six months, infants were given fruit (92%), cereals (76%), vegetables (72%), oils and fats (68%), meat (55%), sweets and desserts (45%), and tubers (30%), in addition to breastmilk, formula or cow-milk. Less than 10% were given fish, pulses and cured meat. Only one infant was given an egg, another one nuts, both in the NBF group. Two infants were given sauces, one in the ABF and one in the NBF group, with an irrelevant contribution to nutrients and energy intakes. As far as drinks, in addition to milk and broth, are concerned, 19 infants were given sweetened drinks such as fruit juices and teas. Table 3 shows the percentage of consumption of each food group, its daily intake (g/d) and its caloric contribution (%). NBF infants ate significantly higher quantities of milk and milk products (584 vs. 508 g/d), fruit (93 vs. 69 g/d), and sweets and desserts (21 vs.11 g/d), while ABF infants received a significantly higher proportion of energy from milk and milk products (67% vs. 61%) and from oils and fats (6% vs. 4%), but less from sweets and desserts (6% vs. 8%).


Patterns of nutrients' intake at six months in the northeast of Italy: a cohort study.

Pani P, Carletti C, Knowles A, Parpinel M, Concina F, Montico M, Cattaneo A - BMC Pediatr (2014)

Total energy (Tot E) and macronutrient intake (%) from complementary foods only in ABF (n = 175) and NBF (n = 77) infants (n = 252) by commercial and non commercial foods; all differences are significant (p < 0.001).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4048623&req=5

Figure 2: Total energy (Tot E) and macronutrient intake (%) from complementary foods only in ABF (n = 175) and NBF (n = 77) infants (n = 252) by commercial and non commercial foods; all differences are significant (p < 0.001).
Mentions: Complementary feeding was analysed distinguishing home made from commercial baby food and identifying the contribution of each of these in terms of nutrient intake. Overall, home-made food contributed more nutrients in both ABF and NBF infants. NBF infants consumed significantly higher quantities of commercial baby foods than ABF infants, with a consequent higher intake of macronutrients from these foods (p < 0.001). In particular, commercial baby foods represented the main source of carbohydrates in NBF infants (Figure 2). At six months, infants were given fruit (92%), cereals (76%), vegetables (72%), oils and fats (68%), meat (55%), sweets and desserts (45%), and tubers (30%), in addition to breastmilk, formula or cow-milk. Less than 10% were given fish, pulses and cured meat. Only one infant was given an egg, another one nuts, both in the NBF group. Two infants were given sauces, one in the ABF and one in the NBF group, with an irrelevant contribution to nutrients and energy intakes. As far as drinks, in addition to milk and broth, are concerned, 19 infants were given sweetened drinks such as fruit juices and teas. Table 3 shows the percentage of consumption of each food group, its daily intake (g/d) and its caloric contribution (%). NBF infants ate significantly higher quantities of milk and milk products (584 vs. 508 g/d), fruit (93 vs. 69 g/d), and sweets and desserts (21 vs.11 g/d), while ABF infants received a significantly higher proportion of energy from milk and milk products (67% vs. 61%) and from oils and fats (6% vs. 4%), but less from sweets and desserts (6% vs. 8%).

Bottom Line: These consumed significantly higher quantities of commercial baby foods than breastfed infants.Contrary to what is recommended, 94% of infants were not exclusively breastfed and were given complementary foods at six months.The proportion of daily energy intake from complementary foods was around 50% higher than recommended and with significant differences between breastfed and non-breastfed infants, with possible consequences for future nutrition and health.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Health Services Research and International Health, Institute for Maternal and Child Health IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Via dell'Istria 65/1, 34137 Trieste, Italy. adriano.cattaneo@burlo.trieste.it.

ABSTRACT

Background: Adequate complementary feeding is recognized as an important predictor of health later in life. The objective of this study was to describe the feeding practices and nutrients' intake, and their association with breastfeeding at six months of age, in a cohort of infants enrolled at birth in the maternity hospital of Trieste, Italy.

Methods: Out of 400 infants enrolled at birth, 268 (67%) had complete data gathered through a 24-hour feeding diary on three separate days at six months, and two questionnaires administered at birth and at six months. Data from feeding diaries were used to estimate nutrients' intakes using the Italian food composition database included in the software. To estimate the quantity of breastmilk, information was gathered on the frequency and length of breastfeeds.

Results: At six months, 70% of infants were breastfed and 94% were given complementary foods. The average daily caloric intake was higher in non-breastfed (723 Kcal) than in breastfed infants (547 Kcal, p < 0.001) due to energy provided by complementary foods (321 vs. 190 Kcal, p < 0.001) and milk (363 vs. 301 Kcal, p = 0.007). Non-breastfed infants had also higher intakes of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. The mean intake of macronutrients was within recommended ranges in both groups, except for the higher protein intake in non-breastfed infants. These consumed significantly higher quantities of commercial baby foods than breastfed infants.

Conclusions: Contrary to what is recommended, 94% of infants were not exclusively breastfed and were given complementary foods at six months. The proportion of daily energy intake from complementary foods was around 50% higher than recommended and with significant differences between breastfed and non-breastfed infants, with possible consequences for future nutrition and health.

Show MeSH