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Solar drying and organoleptic characteristics of two tropical African fish species using improved low-cost solar driers.

Mustapha MK, Ajibola TB, Salako AF, Ademola SK - Food Sci Nutr (2014)

Bottom Line: The low-cost solar driers were effective found in removing water from the fish resulting in significant loss of weight and moisture.These low-cost driers are simple to construct, materials for its construction readily available, easy to maintain and operate, hygienic in use, reliable, effective, occupies less area, dry products faster with increased shelf-life, save man-hour, user-friendly, use renewable energy, protect the drying samples from filthiness, wetness, and invasion by pests, insects, and microbes, with well-dried, high-quality, and better preserved final products.The adoption and use any of these low-cost solar driers by artisanal fishermen and general household in sub-Saharan Africa will not only help in reducing post catch losses, but also ensure food safety and security as there is abundant solar energy in these sub-Saharan African tropical countries for the operation of the driers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Zoology, University of Ilorin Ilorin, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT
This study was done to evaluate the drying performance, efficiency, and effectiveness of five different types of improved low-cost solar driers in terms of moisture loss from two tropical African fish species Clarias gariepinus (African sharp tooth catfish) and Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia) and testing the organoleptic characteristics of the dried samples. The driers used were made from plastic, aluminum, glass, glass with black igneous stone, and mosquito net, with traditional direct open-sun drying as a control. A significant (P < 0.05) decrease in weight resulting from moisture loss in the two fish species was observed in all the driers, with the highest reduction occurring in the glass drier containing black stone. The rate of weight loss was faster in the first 4 days of drying with black stone-inserted glass drier showing the fastest drying rate with a constant weight in C. gariepinus attained on the 11th day and in O. niloticus on the eighth day. The slowest drier was plastic where a constant weight of the species were recorded on and 13th day and 11th day, respectively. Volunteers were used to assess the organoleptic characteristics of the dried samples and they showed lowest acceptability for the open-sun drying, while samples from the glass drier containing black stone had the highest acceptability in terms of the taste, flavor, appearance, texture, odor, palatability, and shelf-life. The low-cost solar driers were effective found in removing water from the fish resulting in significant loss of weight and moisture. The highest drying time, efficient performance, drying effectiveness, and high acceptability of the organoleptic parameters of the dried products from the black stone-inserted glass drier were due to the ability of the glass and the black stone to retain, transmit, and radiate heat to the fish sample all the time (day and night). These low-cost driers are simple to construct, materials for its construction readily available, easy to maintain and operate, hygienic in use, reliable, effective, occupies less area, dry products faster with increased shelf-life, save man-hour, user-friendly, use renewable energy, protect the drying samples from filthiness, wetness, and invasion by pests, insects, and microbes, with well-dried, high-quality, and better preserved final products. The adoption and use any of these low-cost solar driers by artisanal fishermen and general household in sub-Saharan Africa will not only help in reducing post catch losses, but also ensure food safety and security as there is abundant solar energy in these sub-Saharan African tropical countries for the operation of the driers.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Variations in weight loss (moisture reduction) with time in Clarias gariepinus under different improved low-cost solar driers and the open-sun drying.
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fig01: Variations in weight loss (moisture reduction) with time in Clarias gariepinus under different improved low-cost solar driers and the open-sun drying.

Mentions: The results of the drying (weight and percentage moisture content losses and the final percentage moisture content) of the two fish samples C. gariepinus and O. niloticus from the different solar driers and the control are presented in Tables 1, 2. The mean weight of C. gariepinus used for the drying was 336 ± 30 g, while that of O. niloticus was 110 ± 20 g. A significant (P < 0.05) decrease in weight resulting from moisture loss in the two fish species samples was observed in all the driers, with the highest reduction occurring in the glass drier containing black stone. The variations in weight loss resulting from moisture reduction with time in the two species are shown in Figures 1, 2. A progressive decrease in weight of C. gariepinus was recorded from the first day of drying until a constant weight was recorded on the 13th day (Fig. 1). The rate of weight loss was faster in the first 4 days of drying, but slowed down afterwards till a constant weight was recorded. Black stone-inserted Glass drier showed the fastest drying rate with a constant weight in C. gariepinus attained on the 11th day, while slowest drier was plastic where a constant weight of the species was recorded on and 13th day. The rate of drying was also faster in the first 4 days in all the driers for O. niloticus shown by the progressive decrease in weight recorded in the species (Fig. 2). A constant weight of O. niloticus was observed on the eighth day in the black stone-inserted drier, which was the fastest while the plastic drier showed the lowest drying time with a constant weight of O. niloticus achieved on the 11th day.


Solar drying and organoleptic characteristics of two tropical African fish species using improved low-cost solar driers.

Mustapha MK, Ajibola TB, Salako AF, Ademola SK - Food Sci Nutr (2014)

Variations in weight loss (moisture reduction) with time in Clarias gariepinus under different improved low-cost solar driers and the open-sun drying.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4048610&req=5

fig01: Variations in weight loss (moisture reduction) with time in Clarias gariepinus under different improved low-cost solar driers and the open-sun drying.
Mentions: The results of the drying (weight and percentage moisture content losses and the final percentage moisture content) of the two fish samples C. gariepinus and O. niloticus from the different solar driers and the control are presented in Tables 1, 2. The mean weight of C. gariepinus used for the drying was 336 ± 30 g, while that of O. niloticus was 110 ± 20 g. A significant (P < 0.05) decrease in weight resulting from moisture loss in the two fish species samples was observed in all the driers, with the highest reduction occurring in the glass drier containing black stone. The variations in weight loss resulting from moisture reduction with time in the two species are shown in Figures 1, 2. A progressive decrease in weight of C. gariepinus was recorded from the first day of drying until a constant weight was recorded on the 13th day (Fig. 1). The rate of weight loss was faster in the first 4 days of drying, but slowed down afterwards till a constant weight was recorded. Black stone-inserted Glass drier showed the fastest drying rate with a constant weight in C. gariepinus attained on the 11th day, while slowest drier was plastic where a constant weight of the species was recorded on and 13th day. The rate of drying was also faster in the first 4 days in all the driers for O. niloticus shown by the progressive decrease in weight recorded in the species (Fig. 2). A constant weight of O. niloticus was observed on the eighth day in the black stone-inserted drier, which was the fastest while the plastic drier showed the lowest drying time with a constant weight of O. niloticus achieved on the 11th day.

Bottom Line: The low-cost solar driers were effective found in removing water from the fish resulting in significant loss of weight and moisture.These low-cost driers are simple to construct, materials for its construction readily available, easy to maintain and operate, hygienic in use, reliable, effective, occupies less area, dry products faster with increased shelf-life, save man-hour, user-friendly, use renewable energy, protect the drying samples from filthiness, wetness, and invasion by pests, insects, and microbes, with well-dried, high-quality, and better preserved final products.The adoption and use any of these low-cost solar driers by artisanal fishermen and general household in sub-Saharan Africa will not only help in reducing post catch losses, but also ensure food safety and security as there is abundant solar energy in these sub-Saharan African tropical countries for the operation of the driers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Zoology, University of Ilorin Ilorin, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT
This study was done to evaluate the drying performance, efficiency, and effectiveness of five different types of improved low-cost solar driers in terms of moisture loss from two tropical African fish species Clarias gariepinus (African sharp tooth catfish) and Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia) and testing the organoleptic characteristics of the dried samples. The driers used were made from plastic, aluminum, glass, glass with black igneous stone, and mosquito net, with traditional direct open-sun drying as a control. A significant (P < 0.05) decrease in weight resulting from moisture loss in the two fish species was observed in all the driers, with the highest reduction occurring in the glass drier containing black stone. The rate of weight loss was faster in the first 4 days of drying with black stone-inserted glass drier showing the fastest drying rate with a constant weight in C. gariepinus attained on the 11th day and in O. niloticus on the eighth day. The slowest drier was plastic where a constant weight of the species were recorded on and 13th day and 11th day, respectively. Volunteers were used to assess the organoleptic characteristics of the dried samples and they showed lowest acceptability for the open-sun drying, while samples from the glass drier containing black stone had the highest acceptability in terms of the taste, flavor, appearance, texture, odor, palatability, and shelf-life. The low-cost solar driers were effective found in removing water from the fish resulting in significant loss of weight and moisture. The highest drying time, efficient performance, drying effectiveness, and high acceptability of the organoleptic parameters of the dried products from the black stone-inserted glass drier were due to the ability of the glass and the black stone to retain, transmit, and radiate heat to the fish sample all the time (day and night). These low-cost driers are simple to construct, materials for its construction readily available, easy to maintain and operate, hygienic in use, reliable, effective, occupies less area, dry products faster with increased shelf-life, save man-hour, user-friendly, use renewable energy, protect the drying samples from filthiness, wetness, and invasion by pests, insects, and microbes, with well-dried, high-quality, and better preserved final products. The adoption and use any of these low-cost solar driers by artisanal fishermen and general household in sub-Saharan Africa will not only help in reducing post catch losses, but also ensure food safety and security as there is abundant solar energy in these sub-Saharan African tropical countries for the operation of the driers.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus