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Additional nitrogen fertilization at heading time of rice down-regulates cellulose synthesis in seed endosperm.

Midorikawa K, Kuroda M, Terauchi K, Hoshi M, Ikenaga S, Ishimaru Y, Abe K, Asakura T - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: As a result, it was assessed that genes associated with molecular processes such as photosynthesis, trehalose metabolism, carbon fixation, amino acid metabolism, and cell wall metabolism were differentially expressed.Moreover, additional nitrogen fertilization caused accumulation of storage proteins and up-regulated Cys-poor prolamin mRNA expression.These data suggest that additional nitrogen fertilization at heading time changes the expression of some storage substance-related genes and reduces cellulose levels in endosperm.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

ABSTRACT
The balance between carbon and nitrogen is a key determinant of seed storage components, and thus, is of great importance to rice and other seed-based food crops. To clarify the influence of the rhizosphere carbon/nitrogen balance during the maturation stage of several seed components, transcriptome analysis was performed on the seeds from rice plants that were provided additional nitrogen fertilization at heading time. As a result, it was assessed that genes associated with molecular processes such as photosynthesis, trehalose metabolism, carbon fixation, amino acid metabolism, and cell wall metabolism were differentially expressed. Moreover, cellulose and sucrose synthases, which are involved in cellulose synthesis, were down-regulated. Therefore, we compared cellulose content of mature seeds that were treated with additional nitrogen fertilization with those from control plants using calcofluor staining. In these experiments, cellulose content in endosperm from plants receiving additional nitrogen fertilization was less than that in control endosperm. Other starch synthesis-related genes such as starch synthase 1, starch phosphorylase 2, and branching enzyme 3 were also down-regulated, whereas some α-amylase and β-amylase genes were up-regulated. On the other hand, mRNA expression of amino acid biosynthesis-related molecules was up-regulated. Moreover, additional nitrogen fertilization caused accumulation of storage proteins and up-regulated Cys-poor prolamin mRNA expression. These data suggest that additional nitrogen fertilization at heading time changes the expression of some storage substance-related genes and reduces cellulose levels in endosperm.

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Cluster dendrogram.A cluster dendrogram was generated using rice seed gene expression data from six samples and the “pvclust” function. Each sample was prepared at 15-DAF seeds from 24 control or 24 N-fertilized plants and were pooled. Three sets of five seeds were picked from each seed pool. C, control samples; N, N-fertilized samples.
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pone-0098738-g004: Cluster dendrogram.A cluster dendrogram was generated using rice seed gene expression data from six samples and the “pvclust” function. Each sample was prepared at 15-DAF seeds from 24 control or 24 N-fertilized plants and were pooled. Three sets of five seeds were picked from each seed pool. C, control samples; N, N-fertilized samples.

Mentions: Dehusked 15-DAF developing seeds from rice plants were subjected to DNA microarray analysis, and data from six samples (three per experimental plot) were normalized using the DFW method and subjected to hierarchical clustering analysis. As shown in Fig. 4, a distinct separation was observed between the N-fertilized and control samples.


Additional nitrogen fertilization at heading time of rice down-regulates cellulose synthesis in seed endosperm.

Midorikawa K, Kuroda M, Terauchi K, Hoshi M, Ikenaga S, Ishimaru Y, Abe K, Asakura T - PLoS ONE (2014)

Cluster dendrogram.A cluster dendrogram was generated using rice seed gene expression data from six samples and the “pvclust” function. Each sample was prepared at 15-DAF seeds from 24 control or 24 N-fertilized plants and were pooled. Three sets of five seeds were picked from each seed pool. C, control samples; N, N-fertilized samples.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4048278&req=5

pone-0098738-g004: Cluster dendrogram.A cluster dendrogram was generated using rice seed gene expression data from six samples and the “pvclust” function. Each sample was prepared at 15-DAF seeds from 24 control or 24 N-fertilized plants and were pooled. Three sets of five seeds were picked from each seed pool. C, control samples; N, N-fertilized samples.
Mentions: Dehusked 15-DAF developing seeds from rice plants were subjected to DNA microarray analysis, and data from six samples (three per experimental plot) were normalized using the DFW method and subjected to hierarchical clustering analysis. As shown in Fig. 4, a distinct separation was observed between the N-fertilized and control samples.

Bottom Line: As a result, it was assessed that genes associated with molecular processes such as photosynthesis, trehalose metabolism, carbon fixation, amino acid metabolism, and cell wall metabolism were differentially expressed.Moreover, additional nitrogen fertilization caused accumulation of storage proteins and up-regulated Cys-poor prolamin mRNA expression.These data suggest that additional nitrogen fertilization at heading time changes the expression of some storage substance-related genes and reduces cellulose levels in endosperm.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

ABSTRACT
The balance between carbon and nitrogen is a key determinant of seed storage components, and thus, is of great importance to rice and other seed-based food crops. To clarify the influence of the rhizosphere carbon/nitrogen balance during the maturation stage of several seed components, transcriptome analysis was performed on the seeds from rice plants that were provided additional nitrogen fertilization at heading time. As a result, it was assessed that genes associated with molecular processes such as photosynthesis, trehalose metabolism, carbon fixation, amino acid metabolism, and cell wall metabolism were differentially expressed. Moreover, cellulose and sucrose synthases, which are involved in cellulose synthesis, were down-regulated. Therefore, we compared cellulose content of mature seeds that were treated with additional nitrogen fertilization with those from control plants using calcofluor staining. In these experiments, cellulose content in endosperm from plants receiving additional nitrogen fertilization was less than that in control endosperm. Other starch synthesis-related genes such as starch synthase 1, starch phosphorylase 2, and branching enzyme 3 were also down-regulated, whereas some α-amylase and β-amylase genes were up-regulated. On the other hand, mRNA expression of amino acid biosynthesis-related molecules was up-regulated. Moreover, additional nitrogen fertilization caused accumulation of storage proteins and up-regulated Cys-poor prolamin mRNA expression. These data suggest that additional nitrogen fertilization at heading time changes the expression of some storage substance-related genes and reduces cellulose levels in endosperm.

Show MeSH