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Protective effects of astragaloside IV against amyloid beta1-42 neurotoxicity by inhibiting the mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening.

Sun Q, Jia N, Wang W, Jin H, Xu J, Hu H - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: The results showed that pretreatment of AS-IV significantly increased the viability of neuronal cells, reduced apoptosis, decreased the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased mitochondrial superoxide in the presence of Aβ1-42.Moreover, pretreatment of AS-IV reduced the expression of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 and increased the expression of Bcl-2 in an Aβ1-42 rich environment.These results provide novel insights of AS-IV for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as AD.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Human Anatomy and Histo-Embryology, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

ABSTRACT
Mitochondrial dysfunction caused by amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). Substantial evidence has indicated that the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening is involved in Aβ-induced neuronal death and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Astragaloside IV (AS-IV), one of the major active constituents of Astragalus membranaceus, has been reported as an effective anti-oxidant for treating neurodegenerative diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms still need to be clarified. In this study, we investigated whether AS-IV could prevent Aβ1-42-induced neurotoxicity in SK-N-SH cells via inhibiting the mPTP opening. The results showed that pretreatment of AS-IV significantly increased the viability of neuronal cells, reduced apoptosis, decreased the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased mitochondrial superoxide in the presence of Aβ1-42. In addition, pretreatment of AS-IV inhibited the mPTP opening, rescued mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), enhanced ATP generation, improved the activity of cytochrome c oxidase and blocked cytochrome c release from mitochondria in Aβ1-42 rich milieu. Moreover, pretreatment of AS-IV reduced the expression of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 and increased the expression of Bcl-2 in an Aβ1-42 rich environment. These data indicate that AS-IV prevents Aβ1-42-induced SK-N-SH cell apoptosis via inhibiting the mPTP opening and ROS generation. These results provide novel insights of AS-IV for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as AD.

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Protective effects of AS-IV on Aβ1-42-induced apoptosis in SK-N-SH cells.A. Detection of apoptosis by TUNEL assay in different groups. Percentage of TUNEL positive cells was relative to the untreated vehicle cells. #P<0.01 vs vehicle; *P<0.01 vs Aβ1-42 (n = 4). B. AS-IV inhibited Aβ1-42-induced activation of caspase-3 in SK-N-SH cells. A representative blots of immunoreactive bands for cleaved caspase-3 in SK-N-SH cells. C. Data were expressed as fold-increase of cleaved caspase-3 relative to vehicle. Protein expression levels were normalized to β-actin. #P<0.01 vs vehicle; *P<0.01 vs Aβ1-42 (n = 4).
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pone-0098866-g005: Protective effects of AS-IV on Aβ1-42-induced apoptosis in SK-N-SH cells.A. Detection of apoptosis by TUNEL assay in different groups. Percentage of TUNEL positive cells was relative to the untreated vehicle cells. #P<0.01 vs vehicle; *P<0.01 vs Aβ1-42 (n = 4). B. AS-IV inhibited Aβ1-42-induced activation of caspase-3 in SK-N-SH cells. A representative blots of immunoreactive bands for cleaved caspase-3 in SK-N-SH cells. C. Data were expressed as fold-increase of cleaved caspase-3 relative to vehicle. Protein expression levels were normalized to β-actin. #P<0.01 vs vehicle; *P<0.01 vs Aβ1-42 (n = 4).

Mentions: Next, we investigated the protective effect of AS-IV against Aβ1-42-induced apoptosis in SK-N-SH cells. The Aβ1-42 group showed more TUNEL-positive cells compared with the vehicle group. Pretreatment of AS-IV at 25 or 50 µM significantly decreased TUNEL-positive cells numbers in a dose-dependent manner compared with Aβ1-42 treatment (P<0.01), though the apoptotic cells numbers were slightly more than that in the vehicle group. Few apoptotic cells were visible in the vehicle group. Pretreatment of 10 µM AS-IV did not show a significant difference compared with Aβ1-42 treatment (P>0.05) (Fig. 5A). To confirm the anti-apoptotic effect of AS-IV in the presence of Aβ1-42, we measured the expression of cleaved caspase-3 protein. As shown in Fig. 5B + Chttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11010-011-1219-1/fulltext.html - Fig3, cells in the Aβ1-42 group exhibited significantly increased level of cleaved caspase-3 protein compared with cells in the vehicle group (P<0.01). Pretreatment of AS-IV at 25 or 50 µM significantly decreased cleaved caspase-3 protein expression in a dose-dependent manner compared with the Aβ1-42 treatment, but the cleaved caspase-3 level is higher than that in the vehicle group (P<0.01). Cells pretreated with 10 µM AS-IV did not show significantly changes compared with cells treated with Aβ1-42 alone (P<0.01) (Fig. 5C). 50 µM AS-IV alone treatment did not show an insult to SK-N-SH cells.


Protective effects of astragaloside IV against amyloid beta1-42 neurotoxicity by inhibiting the mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening.

Sun Q, Jia N, Wang W, Jin H, Xu J, Hu H - PLoS ONE (2014)

Protective effects of AS-IV on Aβ1-42-induced apoptosis in SK-N-SH cells.A. Detection of apoptosis by TUNEL assay in different groups. Percentage of TUNEL positive cells was relative to the untreated vehicle cells. #P<0.01 vs vehicle; *P<0.01 vs Aβ1-42 (n = 4). B. AS-IV inhibited Aβ1-42-induced activation of caspase-3 in SK-N-SH cells. A representative blots of immunoreactive bands for cleaved caspase-3 in SK-N-SH cells. C. Data were expressed as fold-increase of cleaved caspase-3 relative to vehicle. Protein expression levels were normalized to β-actin. #P<0.01 vs vehicle; *P<0.01 vs Aβ1-42 (n = 4).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4048237&req=5

pone-0098866-g005: Protective effects of AS-IV on Aβ1-42-induced apoptosis in SK-N-SH cells.A. Detection of apoptosis by TUNEL assay in different groups. Percentage of TUNEL positive cells was relative to the untreated vehicle cells. #P<0.01 vs vehicle; *P<0.01 vs Aβ1-42 (n = 4). B. AS-IV inhibited Aβ1-42-induced activation of caspase-3 in SK-N-SH cells. A representative blots of immunoreactive bands for cleaved caspase-3 in SK-N-SH cells. C. Data were expressed as fold-increase of cleaved caspase-3 relative to vehicle. Protein expression levels were normalized to β-actin. #P<0.01 vs vehicle; *P<0.01 vs Aβ1-42 (n = 4).
Mentions: Next, we investigated the protective effect of AS-IV against Aβ1-42-induced apoptosis in SK-N-SH cells. The Aβ1-42 group showed more TUNEL-positive cells compared with the vehicle group. Pretreatment of AS-IV at 25 or 50 µM significantly decreased TUNEL-positive cells numbers in a dose-dependent manner compared with Aβ1-42 treatment (P<0.01), though the apoptotic cells numbers were slightly more than that in the vehicle group. Few apoptotic cells were visible in the vehicle group. Pretreatment of 10 µM AS-IV did not show a significant difference compared with Aβ1-42 treatment (P>0.05) (Fig. 5A). To confirm the anti-apoptotic effect of AS-IV in the presence of Aβ1-42, we measured the expression of cleaved caspase-3 protein. As shown in Fig. 5B + Chttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11010-011-1219-1/fulltext.html - Fig3, cells in the Aβ1-42 group exhibited significantly increased level of cleaved caspase-3 protein compared with cells in the vehicle group (P<0.01). Pretreatment of AS-IV at 25 or 50 µM significantly decreased cleaved caspase-3 protein expression in a dose-dependent manner compared with the Aβ1-42 treatment, but the cleaved caspase-3 level is higher than that in the vehicle group (P<0.01). Cells pretreated with 10 µM AS-IV did not show significantly changes compared with cells treated with Aβ1-42 alone (P<0.01) (Fig. 5C). 50 µM AS-IV alone treatment did not show an insult to SK-N-SH cells.

Bottom Line: The results showed that pretreatment of AS-IV significantly increased the viability of neuronal cells, reduced apoptosis, decreased the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased mitochondrial superoxide in the presence of Aβ1-42.Moreover, pretreatment of AS-IV reduced the expression of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 and increased the expression of Bcl-2 in an Aβ1-42 rich environment.These results provide novel insights of AS-IV for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as AD.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Human Anatomy and Histo-Embryology, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

ABSTRACT
Mitochondrial dysfunction caused by amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). Substantial evidence has indicated that the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening is involved in Aβ-induced neuronal death and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Astragaloside IV (AS-IV), one of the major active constituents of Astragalus membranaceus, has been reported as an effective anti-oxidant for treating neurodegenerative diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms still need to be clarified. In this study, we investigated whether AS-IV could prevent Aβ1-42-induced neurotoxicity in SK-N-SH cells via inhibiting the mPTP opening. The results showed that pretreatment of AS-IV significantly increased the viability of neuronal cells, reduced apoptosis, decreased the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased mitochondrial superoxide in the presence of Aβ1-42. In addition, pretreatment of AS-IV inhibited the mPTP opening, rescued mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), enhanced ATP generation, improved the activity of cytochrome c oxidase and blocked cytochrome c release from mitochondria in Aβ1-42 rich milieu. Moreover, pretreatment of AS-IV reduced the expression of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 and increased the expression of Bcl-2 in an Aβ1-42 rich environment. These data indicate that AS-IV prevents Aβ1-42-induced SK-N-SH cell apoptosis via inhibiting the mPTP opening and ROS generation. These results provide novel insights of AS-IV for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as AD.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus