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The form of a conditioned stimulus can influence the degree to which it acquires incentive motivational properties.

Meyer PJ, Cogan ES, Robinson TE - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: There is considerable individual variation in the extent to which food- and drug-associated cues (conditioned stimuli, CSs) acquire incentive salience, as indicated by whether they elicit approach towards them, and/or act as conditioned reinforcers.Even when presented in compound (a lever-tone CS), the two elements of the compound differentially acquired motivational properties.We conclude that variation in the to the ability of CSs to acquire incentive salience, and thus their ability to act as incentive stimuli capable of motivating behavior, is determined in part by properties of the CS itself.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
There is considerable individual variation in the extent to which food- and drug-associated cues (conditioned stimuli, CSs) acquire incentive salience, as indicated by whether they elicit approach towards them, and/or act as conditioned reinforcers. Here we asked whether this variation is influenced by properties of the CS itself. In rats, we assessed both the attractiveness and conditioned reinforcing properties of two CSs: a manipulable lever CS versus an auditory (tone) CS. There was considerable individual variation in the extent to which a lever CS acquired incentive motivational properties, as indicated by whether it became attractive (evoked a sign-tracking or goal-tracking conditioned response) or acted as a conditioned reinforcer. However, with a tone CS all rats learned a goal-tracking response, and the tone CS was an equally effective conditioned reinforcer in sign-trackers and goal-trackers. Even when presented in compound (a lever-tone CS), the two elements of the compound differentially acquired motivational properties. In contrast, amphetamine and stress potentiated the conditioned reinforcing properties of both visual and auditory CSs similarly in rats that primarily sign-tracked or goal-tracked. We conclude that variation in the to the ability of CSs to acquire incentive salience, and thus their ability to act as incentive stimuli capable of motivating behavior, is determined in part by properties of the CS itself.

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Amphetamine enhances the reinforcing efficacy of an auditory stimulus equally in sign-trackers (ST), goal-trackers (GT), and intermediates (IN).Amphetamine increased the number of nose-pokes into the active (reinforced by the tone-cue) port. Amphetamine did not have systematic effects on nose-poke responding into the inactive port. Data are represented as mean (± SEM). There were no significant differences between STs and GTs. Asterisks denotes a significant increase compared to the saline-treated rats (0.00 dose).
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pone-0098163-g006: Amphetamine enhances the reinforcing efficacy of an auditory stimulus equally in sign-trackers (ST), goal-trackers (GT), and intermediates (IN).Amphetamine increased the number of nose-pokes into the active (reinforced by the tone-cue) port. Amphetamine did not have systematic effects on nose-poke responding into the inactive port. Data are represented as mean (± SEM). There were no significant differences between STs and GTs. Asterisks denotes a significant increase compared to the saline-treated rats (0.00 dose).

Mentions: Out of the 192 rats tested for PCA, 80 STs and 65 GTs were identified (data not shown). When administered before the conditioned reinforcement test, amphetamine dose-dependently enhanced the conditioned reinforcing effect of the food-paired tone [Fig. 6; F (3, 137) = 15.7, p<0.05 for the main effect of Dose]. However, there were no differences between STs and GTs (ps>0.05), indicating that amphetamine potentiated the conditioned reinforcing effects of the tone cue to the same extent in STs and GTs.


The form of a conditioned stimulus can influence the degree to which it acquires incentive motivational properties.

Meyer PJ, Cogan ES, Robinson TE - PLoS ONE (2014)

Amphetamine enhances the reinforcing efficacy of an auditory stimulus equally in sign-trackers (ST), goal-trackers (GT), and intermediates (IN).Amphetamine increased the number of nose-pokes into the active (reinforced by the tone-cue) port. Amphetamine did not have systematic effects on nose-poke responding into the inactive port. Data are represented as mean (± SEM). There were no significant differences between STs and GTs. Asterisks denotes a significant increase compared to the saline-treated rats (0.00 dose).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4048203&req=5

pone-0098163-g006: Amphetamine enhances the reinforcing efficacy of an auditory stimulus equally in sign-trackers (ST), goal-trackers (GT), and intermediates (IN).Amphetamine increased the number of nose-pokes into the active (reinforced by the tone-cue) port. Amphetamine did not have systematic effects on nose-poke responding into the inactive port. Data are represented as mean (± SEM). There were no significant differences between STs and GTs. Asterisks denotes a significant increase compared to the saline-treated rats (0.00 dose).
Mentions: Out of the 192 rats tested for PCA, 80 STs and 65 GTs were identified (data not shown). When administered before the conditioned reinforcement test, amphetamine dose-dependently enhanced the conditioned reinforcing effect of the food-paired tone [Fig. 6; F (3, 137) = 15.7, p<0.05 for the main effect of Dose]. However, there were no differences between STs and GTs (ps>0.05), indicating that amphetamine potentiated the conditioned reinforcing effects of the tone cue to the same extent in STs and GTs.

Bottom Line: There is considerable individual variation in the extent to which food- and drug-associated cues (conditioned stimuli, CSs) acquire incentive salience, as indicated by whether they elicit approach towards them, and/or act as conditioned reinforcers.Even when presented in compound (a lever-tone CS), the two elements of the compound differentially acquired motivational properties.We conclude that variation in the to the ability of CSs to acquire incentive salience, and thus their ability to act as incentive stimuli capable of motivating behavior, is determined in part by properties of the CS itself.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
There is considerable individual variation in the extent to which food- and drug-associated cues (conditioned stimuli, CSs) acquire incentive salience, as indicated by whether they elicit approach towards them, and/or act as conditioned reinforcers. Here we asked whether this variation is influenced by properties of the CS itself. In rats, we assessed both the attractiveness and conditioned reinforcing properties of two CSs: a manipulable lever CS versus an auditory (tone) CS. There was considerable individual variation in the extent to which a lever CS acquired incentive motivational properties, as indicated by whether it became attractive (evoked a sign-tracking or goal-tracking conditioned response) or acted as a conditioned reinforcer. However, with a tone CS all rats learned a goal-tracking response, and the tone CS was an equally effective conditioned reinforcer in sign-trackers and goal-trackers. Even when presented in compound (a lever-tone CS), the two elements of the compound differentially acquired motivational properties. In contrast, amphetamine and stress potentiated the conditioned reinforcing properties of both visual and auditory CSs similarly in rats that primarily sign-tracked or goal-tracked. We conclude that variation in the to the ability of CSs to acquire incentive salience, and thus their ability to act as incentive stimuli capable of motivating behavior, is determined in part by properties of the CS itself.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus