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The form of a conditioned stimulus can influence the degree to which it acquires incentive motivational properties.

Meyer PJ, Cogan ES, Robinson TE - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: There is considerable individual variation in the extent to which food- and drug-associated cues (conditioned stimuli, CSs) acquire incentive salience, as indicated by whether they elicit approach towards them, and/or act as conditioned reinforcers.Even when presented in compound (a lever-tone CS), the two elements of the compound differentially acquired motivational properties.We conclude that variation in the to the ability of CSs to acquire incentive salience, and thus their ability to act as incentive stimuli capable of motivating behavior, is determined in part by properties of the CS itself.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
There is considerable individual variation in the extent to which food- and drug-associated cues (conditioned stimuli, CSs) acquire incentive salience, as indicated by whether they elicit approach towards them, and/or act as conditioned reinforcers. Here we asked whether this variation is influenced by properties of the CS itself. In rats, we assessed both the attractiveness and conditioned reinforcing properties of two CSs: a manipulable lever CS versus an auditory (tone) CS. There was considerable individual variation in the extent to which a lever CS acquired incentive motivational properties, as indicated by whether it became attractive (evoked a sign-tracking or goal-tracking conditioned response) or acted as a conditioned reinforcer. However, with a tone CS all rats learned a goal-tracking response, and the tone CS was an equally effective conditioned reinforcer in sign-trackers and goal-trackers. Even when presented in compound (a lever-tone CS), the two elements of the compound differentially acquired motivational properties. In contrast, amphetamine and stress potentiated the conditioned reinforcing properties of both visual and auditory CSs similarly in rats that primarily sign-tracked or goal-tracked. We conclude that variation in the to the ability of CSs to acquire incentive salience, and thus their ability to act as incentive stimuli capable of motivating behavior, is determined in part by properties of the CS itself.

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Pavlovian Conditioned Approach (PCA).Rats (n = 47) were classed as sign-trackers (ST), intermediates (IN) or goal-trackers (GT) based on CS-evoked behaviors during 5 days of Pavlovian training. Values represent mean (± SEM) number of lever deflections (panel A), food cup entries (panel B), probability of approaching the lever (panel C), or food cup (panel D), and latency to contact the lever (panel E) or make a food cup entry (panel F).
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pone-0098163-g001: Pavlovian Conditioned Approach (PCA).Rats (n = 47) were classed as sign-trackers (ST), intermediates (IN) or goal-trackers (GT) based on CS-evoked behaviors during 5 days of Pavlovian training. Values represent mean (± SEM) number of lever deflections (panel A), food cup entries (panel B), probability of approaching the lever (panel C), or food cup (panel D), and latency to contact the lever (panel E) or make a food cup entry (panel F).

Mentions: Of the 47 rats tested, 29 STs, 7 GTs, and 11 INs were identified using the PCA Index score described above. Fig. 1 shows that, with training, STs and GTs increasingly approached the lever or magazine, respectively, as indicated by changes in the probability, number of contacts, and approach latency over sessions (Fig. 1; Fs (8, 172)>3.6; ps<0.001 for the Phenotype by Day interaction for all six measures). These data are similar to many previous studies (for review see [5]). Fig. 2A shows that there was strong positive correlation (r = 0.72, p<0.05) between the PCA Index score and the number of lever deflections on day 5 of conditioning. This is expected, as the lever contacts are included as part of the PCA Index score.


The form of a conditioned stimulus can influence the degree to which it acquires incentive motivational properties.

Meyer PJ, Cogan ES, Robinson TE - PLoS ONE (2014)

Pavlovian Conditioned Approach (PCA).Rats (n = 47) were classed as sign-trackers (ST), intermediates (IN) or goal-trackers (GT) based on CS-evoked behaviors during 5 days of Pavlovian training. Values represent mean (± SEM) number of lever deflections (panel A), food cup entries (panel B), probability of approaching the lever (panel C), or food cup (panel D), and latency to contact the lever (panel E) or make a food cup entry (panel F).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4048203&req=5

pone-0098163-g001: Pavlovian Conditioned Approach (PCA).Rats (n = 47) were classed as sign-trackers (ST), intermediates (IN) or goal-trackers (GT) based on CS-evoked behaviors during 5 days of Pavlovian training. Values represent mean (± SEM) number of lever deflections (panel A), food cup entries (panel B), probability of approaching the lever (panel C), or food cup (panel D), and latency to contact the lever (panel E) or make a food cup entry (panel F).
Mentions: Of the 47 rats tested, 29 STs, 7 GTs, and 11 INs were identified using the PCA Index score described above. Fig. 1 shows that, with training, STs and GTs increasingly approached the lever or magazine, respectively, as indicated by changes in the probability, number of contacts, and approach latency over sessions (Fig. 1; Fs (8, 172)>3.6; ps<0.001 for the Phenotype by Day interaction for all six measures). These data are similar to many previous studies (for review see [5]). Fig. 2A shows that there was strong positive correlation (r = 0.72, p<0.05) between the PCA Index score and the number of lever deflections on day 5 of conditioning. This is expected, as the lever contacts are included as part of the PCA Index score.

Bottom Line: There is considerable individual variation in the extent to which food- and drug-associated cues (conditioned stimuli, CSs) acquire incentive salience, as indicated by whether they elicit approach towards them, and/or act as conditioned reinforcers.Even when presented in compound (a lever-tone CS), the two elements of the compound differentially acquired motivational properties.We conclude that variation in the to the ability of CSs to acquire incentive salience, and thus their ability to act as incentive stimuli capable of motivating behavior, is determined in part by properties of the CS itself.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
There is considerable individual variation in the extent to which food- and drug-associated cues (conditioned stimuli, CSs) acquire incentive salience, as indicated by whether they elicit approach towards them, and/or act as conditioned reinforcers. Here we asked whether this variation is influenced by properties of the CS itself. In rats, we assessed both the attractiveness and conditioned reinforcing properties of two CSs: a manipulable lever CS versus an auditory (tone) CS. There was considerable individual variation in the extent to which a lever CS acquired incentive motivational properties, as indicated by whether it became attractive (evoked a sign-tracking or goal-tracking conditioned response) or acted as a conditioned reinforcer. However, with a tone CS all rats learned a goal-tracking response, and the tone CS was an equally effective conditioned reinforcer in sign-trackers and goal-trackers. Even when presented in compound (a lever-tone CS), the two elements of the compound differentially acquired motivational properties. In contrast, amphetamine and stress potentiated the conditioned reinforcing properties of both visual and auditory CSs similarly in rats that primarily sign-tracked or goal-tracked. We conclude that variation in the to the ability of CSs to acquire incentive salience, and thus their ability to act as incentive stimuli capable of motivating behavior, is determined in part by properties of the CS itself.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus