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Virus versus host plant microRNAs: who determines the outcome of the interaction?

Maghuly F, Ramkat RC, Laimer M - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Plant miRs/miRs* from conserved and highly expressed families were identified, which were shown to have potential targets in the genome of both begomoviruses, representing potential plant miRNAs mediating antiviral defense.This is the first assessment of predicted viral miRs/miRs* of ACMV and EACMV-UG and host plant miRNAs, providing a reference point for miRNA identification in pathogens and their hosts.These findings will improve the understanding of host- pathogen interaction pathways and the function of viral miRNAs in Euphorbiaceous crop plants.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Plant Biotechnology Unit (PBU), Department Biotechnology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, BOKU-VIBT, Vienna, Austria.

ABSTRACT
Considering the importance of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the regulation of essential processes in plant pathogen interactions, it is not surprising that, while plant miRNA sequences counteract viral attack via antiviral RNA silencing, viruses in turn have developed antihost defense mechanisms blocking these RNA silencing pathways and establish a counter-defense. In the current study, computational and stem-loop Reverse Transcription - Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) approaches were employed to a) predict and validate virus encoded mature miRNAs (miRs) in 39 DNA-A sequences of the bipartite genomes of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus-Uganda (EACMV-UG) isolates, b) determine whether virus encoded miRs/miRs* generated from the 5'/3' harpin arms have the capacity to bind to genomic sequences of the host plants Jatropha or cassava and c) investigate whether plant encoded miR/miR* sequences have the potential to bind to the viral genomes. Different viral pre-miRNA hairpin sequences and viral miR/miR* length variants occurring as isomiRs were predicted in both viruses. These miRNAs were located in three Open Reading Frames (ORFs) and in the Intergenic Region (IR). Moreover, various target genes for miRNAs from both viruses were predicted and annotated in the host plant genomes indicating that they are involved in biotic response, metabolic pathways and transcription factors. Plant miRs/miRs* from conserved and highly expressed families were identified, which were shown to have potential targets in the genome of both begomoviruses, representing potential plant miRNAs mediating antiviral defense. This is the first assessment of predicted viral miRs/miRs* of ACMV and EACMV-UG and host plant miRNAs, providing a reference point for miRNA identification in pathogens and their hosts. These findings will improve the understanding of host- pathogen interaction pathways and the function of viral miRNAs in Euphorbiaceous crop plants.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

End point PCR amplification of ACMV and EACMV-UG virus miRNAs.PCR products of 60-infected with ACMV and EACMV: S2C6, S4C6, –RT control. Actin (76 bp) was used as internal control.
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pone-0098263-g005: End point PCR amplification of ACMV and EACMV-UG virus miRNAs.PCR products of 60-infected with ACMV and EACMV: S2C6, S4C6, –RT control. Actin (76 bp) was used as internal control.

Mentions: End point PCR showed that 12/27 ACMV miRs and all EACMV-UG miRs could be amplified from at least one of the infected plants with different expression levels (Figure 5, Table S12 in File S1). Some virus miRNA could not be detected in both infected S2C6 and S4C6 plants. It is possible that some miRNA may accumulate at lower levels, which make their detection difficult [62]–[63]. On the other hand, due to the restricted availability of infected plant material, it was not possible to detect all predicted miRNAs.


Virus versus host plant microRNAs: who determines the outcome of the interaction?

Maghuly F, Ramkat RC, Laimer M - PLoS ONE (2014)

End point PCR amplification of ACMV and EACMV-UG virus miRNAs.PCR products of 60-infected with ACMV and EACMV: S2C6, S4C6, –RT control. Actin (76 bp) was used as internal control.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4045720&req=5

pone-0098263-g005: End point PCR amplification of ACMV and EACMV-UG virus miRNAs.PCR products of 60-infected with ACMV and EACMV: S2C6, S4C6, –RT control. Actin (76 bp) was used as internal control.
Mentions: End point PCR showed that 12/27 ACMV miRs and all EACMV-UG miRs could be amplified from at least one of the infected plants with different expression levels (Figure 5, Table S12 in File S1). Some virus miRNA could not be detected in both infected S2C6 and S4C6 plants. It is possible that some miRNA may accumulate at lower levels, which make their detection difficult [62]–[63]. On the other hand, due to the restricted availability of infected plant material, it was not possible to detect all predicted miRNAs.

Bottom Line: Plant miRs/miRs* from conserved and highly expressed families were identified, which were shown to have potential targets in the genome of both begomoviruses, representing potential plant miRNAs mediating antiviral defense.This is the first assessment of predicted viral miRs/miRs* of ACMV and EACMV-UG and host plant miRNAs, providing a reference point for miRNA identification in pathogens and their hosts.These findings will improve the understanding of host- pathogen interaction pathways and the function of viral miRNAs in Euphorbiaceous crop plants.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Plant Biotechnology Unit (PBU), Department Biotechnology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, BOKU-VIBT, Vienna, Austria.

ABSTRACT
Considering the importance of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the regulation of essential processes in plant pathogen interactions, it is not surprising that, while plant miRNA sequences counteract viral attack via antiviral RNA silencing, viruses in turn have developed antihost defense mechanisms blocking these RNA silencing pathways and establish a counter-defense. In the current study, computational and stem-loop Reverse Transcription - Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) approaches were employed to a) predict and validate virus encoded mature miRNAs (miRs) in 39 DNA-A sequences of the bipartite genomes of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus-Uganda (EACMV-UG) isolates, b) determine whether virus encoded miRs/miRs* generated from the 5'/3' harpin arms have the capacity to bind to genomic sequences of the host plants Jatropha or cassava and c) investigate whether plant encoded miR/miR* sequences have the potential to bind to the viral genomes. Different viral pre-miRNA hairpin sequences and viral miR/miR* length variants occurring as isomiRs were predicted in both viruses. These miRNAs were located in three Open Reading Frames (ORFs) and in the Intergenic Region (IR). Moreover, various target genes for miRNAs from both viruses were predicted and annotated in the host plant genomes indicating that they are involved in biotic response, metabolic pathways and transcription factors. Plant miRs/miRs* from conserved and highly expressed families were identified, which were shown to have potential targets in the genome of both begomoviruses, representing potential plant miRNAs mediating antiviral defense. This is the first assessment of predicted viral miRs/miRs* of ACMV and EACMV-UG and host plant miRNAs, providing a reference point for miRNA identification in pathogens and their hosts. These findings will improve the understanding of host- pathogen interaction pathways and the function of viral miRNAs in Euphorbiaceous crop plants.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus