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Pregnancy's stronghold on the vaginal microbiome.

Walther-António MR, Jeraldo P, Berg Miller ME, Yeoman CJ, Nelson KE, Wilson BA, White BA, Chia N, Creedon DJ - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: In all of the samples only these two species were identified, and were found at an abundance of higher than 1% in this study.In addition, our Caucasian subject population clustered by trimester and progressed towards a common attractor while African-American women clustered by subject instead and did not progress towards a common attractor.This helps establish a baseline for investigating the role of the microbiome in complications of pregnancy such as preterm labor and preterm delivery.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Surgical Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the vaginal microbiome throughout full-term uncomplicated pregnancy.

Methods: Vaginal swabs were obtained from twelve pregnant women at 8-week intervals throughout their uncomplicated pregnancies. Patients with symptoms of vaginal infection or with recent antibiotic use were excluded. Swabs were obtained from the posterior fornix and cervix at 8-12, 17-21, 27-31, and 36-38 weeks of gestation. The microbial community was profiled using hypervariable tag sequencing of the V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene, producing approximately 8 million reads on the Illumina MiSeq.

Results: Samples were dominated by a single genus, Lactobacillus, and exhibited low species diversity. For a majority of the patients (n = 8), the vaginal microbiome was dominated by Lactobacillus crispatus throughout pregnancy. Two patients showed Lactobacillus iners dominance during the course of pregnancy, and two showed a shift between the first and second trimester from L. crispatus to L. iners dominance. In all of the samples only these two species were identified, and were found at an abundance of higher than 1% in this study. Comparative analyses also showed that the vaginal microbiome during pregnancy is characterized by a marked dominance of Lactobacillus species in both Caucasian and African-American subjects. In addition, our Caucasian subject population clustered by trimester and progressed towards a common attractor while African-American women clustered by subject instead and did not progress towards a common attractor.

Conclusion: Our analyses indicate normal pregnancy is characterized by a microbiome that has low diversity and high stability. While Lactobacillus species strongly dominate the vaginal environment during pregnancy across the two studied ethnicities, observed differences between the longitudinal dynamics of the analyzed populations may contribute to divergent risk for pregnancy complications. This helps establish a baseline for investigating the role of the microbiome in complications of pregnancy such as preterm labor and preterm delivery.

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Shannon Diversity Index for the vaginal microbiome samples.The profile characterized by a dominance of L. crispatus throughout pregnancy (shared by 8 of the subjects) is significantly less diverse than the two other profiles (except during the first trimester). * p<0.05; ** p<0.005 on paired t-test.
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pone-0098514-g003: Shannon Diversity Index for the vaginal microbiome samples.The profile characterized by a dominance of L. crispatus throughout pregnancy (shared by 8 of the subjects) is significantly less diverse than the two other profiles (except during the first trimester). * p<0.05; ** p<0.005 on paired t-test.

Mentions: Shannon's diversity indexes [22] (Figure 3) showed that the profile characterized by a dominance of L. crispatus throughout pregnancy is less diverse than the other profiles (except during the first trimester).


Pregnancy's stronghold on the vaginal microbiome.

Walther-António MR, Jeraldo P, Berg Miller ME, Yeoman CJ, Nelson KE, Wilson BA, White BA, Chia N, Creedon DJ - PLoS ONE (2014)

Shannon Diversity Index for the vaginal microbiome samples.The profile characterized by a dominance of L. crispatus throughout pregnancy (shared by 8 of the subjects) is significantly less diverse than the two other profiles (except during the first trimester). * p<0.05; ** p<0.005 on paired t-test.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4045671&req=5

pone-0098514-g003: Shannon Diversity Index for the vaginal microbiome samples.The profile characterized by a dominance of L. crispatus throughout pregnancy (shared by 8 of the subjects) is significantly less diverse than the two other profiles (except during the first trimester). * p<0.05; ** p<0.005 on paired t-test.
Mentions: Shannon's diversity indexes [22] (Figure 3) showed that the profile characterized by a dominance of L. crispatus throughout pregnancy is less diverse than the other profiles (except during the first trimester).

Bottom Line: In all of the samples only these two species were identified, and were found at an abundance of higher than 1% in this study.In addition, our Caucasian subject population clustered by trimester and progressed towards a common attractor while African-American women clustered by subject instead and did not progress towards a common attractor.This helps establish a baseline for investigating the role of the microbiome in complications of pregnancy such as preterm labor and preterm delivery.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Surgical Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the vaginal microbiome throughout full-term uncomplicated pregnancy.

Methods: Vaginal swabs were obtained from twelve pregnant women at 8-week intervals throughout their uncomplicated pregnancies. Patients with symptoms of vaginal infection or with recent antibiotic use were excluded. Swabs were obtained from the posterior fornix and cervix at 8-12, 17-21, 27-31, and 36-38 weeks of gestation. The microbial community was profiled using hypervariable tag sequencing of the V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene, producing approximately 8 million reads on the Illumina MiSeq.

Results: Samples were dominated by a single genus, Lactobacillus, and exhibited low species diversity. For a majority of the patients (n = 8), the vaginal microbiome was dominated by Lactobacillus crispatus throughout pregnancy. Two patients showed Lactobacillus iners dominance during the course of pregnancy, and two showed a shift between the first and second trimester from L. crispatus to L. iners dominance. In all of the samples only these two species were identified, and were found at an abundance of higher than 1% in this study. Comparative analyses also showed that the vaginal microbiome during pregnancy is characterized by a marked dominance of Lactobacillus species in both Caucasian and African-American subjects. In addition, our Caucasian subject population clustered by trimester and progressed towards a common attractor while African-American women clustered by subject instead and did not progress towards a common attractor.

Conclusion: Our analyses indicate normal pregnancy is characterized by a microbiome that has low diversity and high stability. While Lactobacillus species strongly dominate the vaginal environment during pregnancy across the two studied ethnicities, observed differences between the longitudinal dynamics of the analyzed populations may contribute to divergent risk for pregnancy complications. This helps establish a baseline for investigating the role of the microbiome in complications of pregnancy such as preterm labor and preterm delivery.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus