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Recognition of TLR2 N-glycans: critical role in ArtinM immunomodulatory activity.

Mariano VS, Zorzetto-Fernandes AL, da Silva TA, Ruas LP, Nohara LL, Almeida IC, Roque-Barreira MC - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: ArtinM, a D-mannose-binding lectin from Artocarpus heterophyllus, induces IL-12 production in macrophages and dendritic cells, which accounts for the T helper1 immunity that results from ArtinM administration.Furthermore, pre-incubation of unstimulated macrophages with an anti-TLR2 antibody reduced the cell labeling with ArtinM.Thus, ArtinM interacts directly with TLR2 or TLR2 heterodimers in a carbohydrate recognition-dependent manner and functions as a TLR2 agonist with immunomodulatory properties.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Biologia Celular e Molecular e Bioagentes Patogênicos, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, USP, São Paulo, Brasil.

ABSTRACT
TLR2 plays a critical role in the protection against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conferred by ArtinM administration. ArtinM, a D-mannose-binding lectin from Artocarpus heterophyllus, induces IL-12 production in macrophages and dendritic cells, which accounts for the T helper1 immunity that results from ArtinM administration. We examined the direct interaction of ArtinM with TLR2using HEK293A cells transfected with TLR2, alone or in combination with TLR1 or TLR6, together with accessory proteins. Stimulation with ArtinM induced NF-κB activation and interleukin (IL)-8 production in cells transfected with TLR2, TLR2/1, or TLR2/6. Murine macrophages that were stimulated with ArtinM had augmented TLR2 mRNA expression. Furthermore, pre-incubation of unstimulated macrophages with an anti-TLR2 antibody reduced the cell labeling with ArtinM. In addition, a microplate assay revealed that ArtinM bound to TLR2 molecules that had been captured by specific antibodies from a macrophages lysate. Notably,ArtinM binding to TLR2 was selectively inhibited when the lectin was pre-incubated with mannotriose. The biological relevance of the direct interaction of ArtinM with TLR2 glycans was assessed using macrophages from TLR2-KOmice, which produced significantly lower levels of IL-12 and IL-10 in response to ArtinM than macrophages from wild-type mice. Pre-treatment of murine macrophages with pharmacological inhibitors of signaling molecules demonstrated the involvement of p38 MAPK and JNK in the IL-12 production induced by ArtinM and the involvement ofPI3K in IL-10 production. Thus, ArtinM interacts directly with TLR2 or TLR2 heterodimers in a carbohydrate recognition-dependent manner and functions as a TLR2 agonist with immunomodulatory properties.

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ArtinM induces the activation of TLR2/1- and TLR2/6-expressing cells.HEK293A cells were transfected with TLR2/1 (A and C) or TLR2/6 (B and D), co-receptors, an NF-κB reporter construct, and a Renilla luciferase reporter plasmid as described for Figure 2. The transfected cells were stimulated with ArtinM (15.6, 156, and 780 nM) at 37°C for 4 h. Medium and cells transfected with an empty vector were used as the negative controls. The positive controls were P3C4 (1 nM) for TLR2/1 activation (A and C) and FSL1 (0.1 nM) for TLR2/6 activation (B and D). The luciferase activity (A and B) was measured as described in the materials and methods. IL-8 levels in the culture supernatants (C and D) were measured by ELISA. Statistical comparisons between the cells incubated with medium and the cells stimulated with ArtinM were performed with a one-way analysis of variance followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test. * p<0.05.
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pone-0098512-g003: ArtinM induces the activation of TLR2/1- and TLR2/6-expressing cells.HEK293A cells were transfected with TLR2/1 (A and C) or TLR2/6 (B and D), co-receptors, an NF-κB reporter construct, and a Renilla luciferase reporter plasmid as described for Figure 2. The transfected cells were stimulated with ArtinM (15.6, 156, and 780 nM) at 37°C for 4 h. Medium and cells transfected with an empty vector were used as the negative controls. The positive controls were P3C4 (1 nM) for TLR2/1 activation (A and C) and FSL1 (0.1 nM) for TLR2/6 activation (B and D). The luciferase activity (A and B) was measured as described in the materials and methods. IL-8 levels in the culture supernatants (C and D) were measured by ELISA. Statistical comparisons between the cells incubated with medium and the cells stimulated with ArtinM were performed with a one-way analysis of variance followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test. * p<0.05.

Mentions: Because TLR2 forms heterodimers with TLR1 orTLR6 on the cell surface, we investigated whether HEK293A cells transfected with TLR2/1 or TLR2/6, as well as with the accessory proteins CD16 and CD36, interacted with ArtinM. As described above, the cells were also transfected with the NF-κB-dependent ELAM-luciferase reporter gene construct, whose activation was detected with a luciferase assay. Alternatively, cell activation was assessed by measuring the concentration of IL-8 in the culture supernatants. The luciferase assay (Figure 3A and B) and the IL-8 measurements (Figure 3C and D) showed that ArtinM interacted with both TLR2/1 and TLR2/6 in a dose-dependent manner. The activation levels in cells stimulated with 156 nM ArtinM were similar to those in cells treated with the control agonists P3C4 (TLR2/1) and FSL (TLR2/6), but markedly different from those obtained with the negative controls (medium or cells transfected with an empty vector). Measurement of NF-κB activation and IL-8 release yielded consistent results and provided functional evidence that ArtinM targets macromolecular complexes containing TLR2.


Recognition of TLR2 N-glycans: critical role in ArtinM immunomodulatory activity.

Mariano VS, Zorzetto-Fernandes AL, da Silva TA, Ruas LP, Nohara LL, Almeida IC, Roque-Barreira MC - PLoS ONE (2014)

ArtinM induces the activation of TLR2/1- and TLR2/6-expressing cells.HEK293A cells were transfected with TLR2/1 (A and C) or TLR2/6 (B and D), co-receptors, an NF-κB reporter construct, and a Renilla luciferase reporter plasmid as described for Figure 2. The transfected cells were stimulated with ArtinM (15.6, 156, and 780 nM) at 37°C for 4 h. Medium and cells transfected with an empty vector were used as the negative controls. The positive controls were P3C4 (1 nM) for TLR2/1 activation (A and C) and FSL1 (0.1 nM) for TLR2/6 activation (B and D). The luciferase activity (A and B) was measured as described in the materials and methods. IL-8 levels in the culture supernatants (C and D) were measured by ELISA. Statistical comparisons between the cells incubated with medium and the cells stimulated with ArtinM were performed with a one-way analysis of variance followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test. * p<0.05.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4043963&req=5

pone-0098512-g003: ArtinM induces the activation of TLR2/1- and TLR2/6-expressing cells.HEK293A cells were transfected with TLR2/1 (A and C) or TLR2/6 (B and D), co-receptors, an NF-κB reporter construct, and a Renilla luciferase reporter plasmid as described for Figure 2. The transfected cells were stimulated with ArtinM (15.6, 156, and 780 nM) at 37°C for 4 h. Medium and cells transfected with an empty vector were used as the negative controls. The positive controls were P3C4 (1 nM) for TLR2/1 activation (A and C) and FSL1 (0.1 nM) for TLR2/6 activation (B and D). The luciferase activity (A and B) was measured as described in the materials and methods. IL-8 levels in the culture supernatants (C and D) were measured by ELISA. Statistical comparisons between the cells incubated with medium and the cells stimulated with ArtinM were performed with a one-way analysis of variance followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison test. * p<0.05.
Mentions: Because TLR2 forms heterodimers with TLR1 orTLR6 on the cell surface, we investigated whether HEK293A cells transfected with TLR2/1 or TLR2/6, as well as with the accessory proteins CD16 and CD36, interacted with ArtinM. As described above, the cells were also transfected with the NF-κB-dependent ELAM-luciferase reporter gene construct, whose activation was detected with a luciferase assay. Alternatively, cell activation was assessed by measuring the concentration of IL-8 in the culture supernatants. The luciferase assay (Figure 3A and B) and the IL-8 measurements (Figure 3C and D) showed that ArtinM interacted with both TLR2/1 and TLR2/6 in a dose-dependent manner. The activation levels in cells stimulated with 156 nM ArtinM were similar to those in cells treated with the control agonists P3C4 (TLR2/1) and FSL (TLR2/6), but markedly different from those obtained with the negative controls (medium or cells transfected with an empty vector). Measurement of NF-κB activation and IL-8 release yielded consistent results and provided functional evidence that ArtinM targets macromolecular complexes containing TLR2.

Bottom Line: ArtinM, a D-mannose-binding lectin from Artocarpus heterophyllus, induces IL-12 production in macrophages and dendritic cells, which accounts for the T helper1 immunity that results from ArtinM administration.Furthermore, pre-incubation of unstimulated macrophages with an anti-TLR2 antibody reduced the cell labeling with ArtinM.Thus, ArtinM interacts directly with TLR2 or TLR2 heterodimers in a carbohydrate recognition-dependent manner and functions as a TLR2 agonist with immunomodulatory properties.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Biologia Celular e Molecular e Bioagentes Patogênicos, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, USP, São Paulo, Brasil.

ABSTRACT
TLR2 plays a critical role in the protection against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conferred by ArtinM administration. ArtinM, a D-mannose-binding lectin from Artocarpus heterophyllus, induces IL-12 production in macrophages and dendritic cells, which accounts for the T helper1 immunity that results from ArtinM administration. We examined the direct interaction of ArtinM with TLR2using HEK293A cells transfected with TLR2, alone or in combination with TLR1 or TLR6, together with accessory proteins. Stimulation with ArtinM induced NF-κB activation and interleukin (IL)-8 production in cells transfected with TLR2, TLR2/1, or TLR2/6. Murine macrophages that were stimulated with ArtinM had augmented TLR2 mRNA expression. Furthermore, pre-incubation of unstimulated macrophages with an anti-TLR2 antibody reduced the cell labeling with ArtinM. In addition, a microplate assay revealed that ArtinM bound to TLR2 molecules that had been captured by specific antibodies from a macrophages lysate. Notably,ArtinM binding to TLR2 was selectively inhibited when the lectin was pre-incubated with mannotriose. The biological relevance of the direct interaction of ArtinM with TLR2 glycans was assessed using macrophages from TLR2-KOmice, which produced significantly lower levels of IL-12 and IL-10 in response to ArtinM than macrophages from wild-type mice. Pre-treatment of murine macrophages with pharmacological inhibitors of signaling molecules demonstrated the involvement of p38 MAPK and JNK in the IL-12 production induced by ArtinM and the involvement ofPI3K in IL-10 production. Thus, ArtinM interacts directly with TLR2 or TLR2 heterodimers in a carbohydrate recognition-dependent manner and functions as a TLR2 agonist with immunomodulatory properties.

Show MeSH