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CMZ reversed chronic ethanol-induced disturbance of PPAR-α possibly by suppressing oxidative stress and PGC-1α acetylation, and activating the MAPK and GSK3β pathway.

Zeng T, Zhang CL, Song FY, Zhao XL, Xie KQ - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Chronic ethanol exposure led to significant decrease of the mRNA and protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α), which was blocked by CMZ co-treatment.CMZ co-treatment suppressed ethanol-induced oxidative stress, overproduction of tumor necrosis α (TNF-α), and decrease of protein levels of the PPAR-α co-activators including p300 and deacetylated PGC1-α.These results suggested that CMZ suppressed chronic ethanol-induced oxidative stress, TNF-α overproduction, decline of p300 protein level and deacetylation of PGC1-α, and activated AMPK, MAPK, and PI3K/Akt/GSK3β pathway, which might contribute to the activation of PPAR-α and account for the protection of CMZ against AFL.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan City, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China.

ABSTRACT

Background: Cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) has been suggested to play critical roles in the pathogenesis of alcoholic fatty liver (AFL), but the underlying mechanisms remains unclear. The current study was designed to evaluate whether CYP2E1 suppression by chlormethiazole (CMZ) could suppress AFL in mice, and to explore the underlying mechanisms.

Methods: Mice were treated with or without CMZ (50 mg/kg bw, i.p.) and subjected to liquid diet with or without ethanol (5%, w/v) for 4 weeks. Biochemical parameters were measured using commercial kits. The protein and mRNA levels were detected by western blot and qPCR, respectively. Histopathology and immunohistochemical assay were performed with routine methods.

Results: CYP2E1 inhibition by CMZ completely blocked AFL in mice, shown as the decline of the hepatic and serum triglyceride levels, and the fewer fat droplets in the liver sections. Chronic ethanol exposure led to significant decrease of the mRNA and protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α), which was blocked by CMZ co-treatment. CMZ co-treatment suppressed ethanol-induced oxidative stress, overproduction of tumor necrosis α (TNF-α), and decrease of protein levels of the PPAR-α co-activators including p300 and deacetylated PGC1-α. Furthermore, CMZ co-treatment led to the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and PI3K/Akt/GSK3β pathway. However, chronic ethanol-induced decline of acyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) protein levels was partially restored by CMZ, while the activation of autophagy appeared to be suppressed by CMZ.

Conclusion: These results suggested that CMZ suppressed chronic ethanol-induced oxidative stress, TNF-α overproduction, decline of p300 protein level and deacetylation of PGC1-α, and activated AMPK, MAPK, and PI3K/Akt/GSK3β pathway, which might contribute to the activation of PPAR-α and account for the protection of CMZ against AFL.

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CMZ co-treatment enhanced the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and p38MAPK.(a) Representative western blot bands for phospho-Erk1/2, Erk1/2, phospho- JNK, JNK, phospho-p38MAPK, and p38MAPK; (b) Quantitative data analyses. Data were presented as mean ± SD from at least 3 independent experiments, and expressed as the percentage of the control. **P<0.01, compared with control group; #P<0.05, ##P<0.01, compared with ethanol group.
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pone-0098658-g005: CMZ co-treatment enhanced the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and p38MAPK.(a) Representative western blot bands for phospho-Erk1/2, Erk1/2, phospho- JNK, JNK, phospho-p38MAPK, and p38MAPK; (b) Quantitative data analyses. Data were presented as mean ± SD from at least 3 independent experiments, and expressed as the percentage of the control. **P<0.01, compared with control group; #P<0.05, ##P<0.01, compared with ethanol group.

Mentions: In addition to AMPK, PPAR-α could be also affected by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) [42]. Therefore, we investigated the protein levels of total and the phosphorylated form of three kinds of MAPK (Erk1/2, JNK/SAPK, and p38MAPK). As shown in Fig.5, the protein levels of phospho-Erk1/2 and phospho-JNK in ethanol group mice liver were significantly decreased when compared with control group mice. CMZ co-treatment significantly increased the phosphorylation of MAPKs. Compared with the ethanol group mice, the ratio of phospho-Erk1/2/Erk1/2 in the liver of CMZ/ethanol group mice was increased to 3.33 fold. Although the phosphorylation of p38 was not significantly affected by ethanol; however, the ratio of phospho-p38/p38 in CMZ/ethanol group mice liver was increased to 3.08 fold compared with that of ethanol group mice. These results suggested that CYP2E1 inhibition by CMZ might lead to the transcriptional activation of PPAR-α.


CMZ reversed chronic ethanol-induced disturbance of PPAR-α possibly by suppressing oxidative stress and PGC-1α acetylation, and activating the MAPK and GSK3β pathway.

Zeng T, Zhang CL, Song FY, Zhao XL, Xie KQ - PLoS ONE (2014)

CMZ co-treatment enhanced the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and p38MAPK.(a) Representative western blot bands for phospho-Erk1/2, Erk1/2, phospho- JNK, JNK, phospho-p38MAPK, and p38MAPK; (b) Quantitative data analyses. Data were presented as mean ± SD from at least 3 independent experiments, and expressed as the percentage of the control. **P<0.01, compared with control group; #P<0.05, ##P<0.01, compared with ethanol group.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4043914&req=5

pone-0098658-g005: CMZ co-treatment enhanced the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and p38MAPK.(a) Representative western blot bands for phospho-Erk1/2, Erk1/2, phospho- JNK, JNK, phospho-p38MAPK, and p38MAPK; (b) Quantitative data analyses. Data were presented as mean ± SD from at least 3 independent experiments, and expressed as the percentage of the control. **P<0.01, compared with control group; #P<0.05, ##P<0.01, compared with ethanol group.
Mentions: In addition to AMPK, PPAR-α could be also affected by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) [42]. Therefore, we investigated the protein levels of total and the phosphorylated form of three kinds of MAPK (Erk1/2, JNK/SAPK, and p38MAPK). As shown in Fig.5, the protein levels of phospho-Erk1/2 and phospho-JNK in ethanol group mice liver were significantly decreased when compared with control group mice. CMZ co-treatment significantly increased the phosphorylation of MAPKs. Compared with the ethanol group mice, the ratio of phospho-Erk1/2/Erk1/2 in the liver of CMZ/ethanol group mice was increased to 3.33 fold. Although the phosphorylation of p38 was not significantly affected by ethanol; however, the ratio of phospho-p38/p38 in CMZ/ethanol group mice liver was increased to 3.08 fold compared with that of ethanol group mice. These results suggested that CYP2E1 inhibition by CMZ might lead to the transcriptional activation of PPAR-α.

Bottom Line: Chronic ethanol exposure led to significant decrease of the mRNA and protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α), which was blocked by CMZ co-treatment.CMZ co-treatment suppressed ethanol-induced oxidative stress, overproduction of tumor necrosis α (TNF-α), and decrease of protein levels of the PPAR-α co-activators including p300 and deacetylated PGC1-α.These results suggested that CMZ suppressed chronic ethanol-induced oxidative stress, TNF-α overproduction, decline of p300 protein level and deacetylation of PGC1-α, and activated AMPK, MAPK, and PI3K/Akt/GSK3β pathway, which might contribute to the activation of PPAR-α and account for the protection of CMZ against AFL.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan City, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China.

ABSTRACT

Background: Cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) has been suggested to play critical roles in the pathogenesis of alcoholic fatty liver (AFL), but the underlying mechanisms remains unclear. The current study was designed to evaluate whether CYP2E1 suppression by chlormethiazole (CMZ) could suppress AFL in mice, and to explore the underlying mechanisms.

Methods: Mice were treated with or without CMZ (50 mg/kg bw, i.p.) and subjected to liquid diet with or without ethanol (5%, w/v) for 4 weeks. Biochemical parameters were measured using commercial kits. The protein and mRNA levels were detected by western blot and qPCR, respectively. Histopathology and immunohistochemical assay were performed with routine methods.

Results: CYP2E1 inhibition by CMZ completely blocked AFL in mice, shown as the decline of the hepatic and serum triglyceride levels, and the fewer fat droplets in the liver sections. Chronic ethanol exposure led to significant decrease of the mRNA and protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α), which was blocked by CMZ co-treatment. CMZ co-treatment suppressed ethanol-induced oxidative stress, overproduction of tumor necrosis α (TNF-α), and decrease of protein levels of the PPAR-α co-activators including p300 and deacetylated PGC1-α. Furthermore, CMZ co-treatment led to the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and PI3K/Akt/GSK3β pathway. However, chronic ethanol-induced decline of acyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) protein levels was partially restored by CMZ, while the activation of autophagy appeared to be suppressed by CMZ.

Conclusion: These results suggested that CMZ suppressed chronic ethanol-induced oxidative stress, TNF-α overproduction, decline of p300 protein level and deacetylation of PGC1-α, and activated AMPK, MAPK, and PI3K/Akt/GSK3β pathway, which might contribute to the activation of PPAR-α and account for the protection of CMZ against AFL.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus