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On a dhole trail: examining ecological and anthropogenic correlates of dhole habitat occupancy in the Western ghats of India.

Srivathsa A, Karanth KK, Jathanna D, Kumar NS, Karanth KU - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: We analyzed the resulting data of dhole signs using likelihood-based habitat occupancy models.Our results are the first rigorous assessment of dhole occupancy at multiple spatial scales with potential conservation value.The approach used in this study has potential utility for cost-effectively assessing spatial distribution and habitat-use in other species, landscapes and reserves.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Post-Graduate Programme in Wildlife Biology and Conservation, Wildlife Conservation Society, India Program, National Centre for Biological Sciences (Tata Institute of Fundamental Research), Bangalore, India; Centre for Wildlife Studies, Bangalore, India.

ABSTRACT
Although they play a critical role in shaping ecological communities, many threatened predator species are data-deficient. The Dhole Cuon alpinus is one such rare canid with a global population thought to be <2500 wild individuals. We assessed habitat occupancy patterns of dholes in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India, to understand ecological and anthropogenic determinants of their distribution and habitat-use. We conducted spatially replicated detection/non-detection surveys of dhole signs along forest trails at two appropriate scales: the entire landscape and a single wildlife reserve. Landscape-scale habitat occupancy was assessed across 38,728 km(2) surveying 206 grid cells of 188-km(2) each. Finer scale habitat-use within 935 km2 Bandipur Reserve was studied surveying 92 grid cells of 13-km(2) km each. We analyzed the resulting data of dhole signs using likelihood-based habitat occupancy models. The models explicitly addressed the problematic issue of imperfect detection of dhole signs during field surveys as well as potential spatial auto-correlation between sign detections made on adjacent trail segments. We show that traditional 'presence versus absence' analyses underestimated dhole habitat occupancy by 60% or 8682 km2 [naïve = 0.27; ψL(SE)  = 0.68 (0.08)] in the landscape. Addressing imperfect sign detections by estimating detection probabilities [p(t)(L) (SE) = 0.12 (0.11)] was critical for reliable estimation. Similar underestimation occurred while estimating habitat-use probability at reserve-scale [naïve = 0.39; Ψs(SE) = 0.71 (0.06)]. At landscape scale, relative abundance of principal ungulate prey primarily influenced dhole habitat occupancy. Habitat-use within a reserve, however, was predominantly and negatively influenced by anthropogenic disturbance. Our results are the first rigorous assessment of dhole occupancy at multiple spatial scales with potential conservation value. The approach used in this study has potential utility for cost-effectively assessing spatial distribution and habitat-use in other species, landscapes and reserves.

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Study area map of Bandipur Tiger Reserve.Study area and survey design for Bandipur Tiger Reserve, India (2012) showing protected area boundary, forest road sign-survey routes and 13-km2-grid array. Inset: location of the study area and adjoining protected areas.
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pone-0098803-g002: Study area map of Bandipur Tiger Reserve.Study area and survey design for Bandipur Tiger Reserve, India (2012) showing protected area boundary, forest road sign-survey routes and 13-km2-grid array. Inset: location of the study area and adjoining protected areas.

Mentions: To examine fine-scale habitat-use by dholes, we chose Bandipur National Park, a 935-km2 subset of the Western Ghats landscape in Karnataka. This protected area predominantly has tropical moist and dry deciduous forests, with some areas degraded to scrub due to human impacts [35]. It supports a density of 35.2/100 km2 medium to large sized prey species [33]. It is contiguous with Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary and Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary to its south and Nagarahole National Park to its northwestern sides (Fig. 2).


On a dhole trail: examining ecological and anthropogenic correlates of dhole habitat occupancy in the Western ghats of India.

Srivathsa A, Karanth KK, Jathanna D, Kumar NS, Karanth KU - PLoS ONE (2014)

Study area map of Bandipur Tiger Reserve.Study area and survey design for Bandipur Tiger Reserve, India (2012) showing protected area boundary, forest road sign-survey routes and 13-km2-grid array. Inset: location of the study area and adjoining protected areas.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4043888&req=5

pone-0098803-g002: Study area map of Bandipur Tiger Reserve.Study area and survey design for Bandipur Tiger Reserve, India (2012) showing protected area boundary, forest road sign-survey routes and 13-km2-grid array. Inset: location of the study area and adjoining protected areas.
Mentions: To examine fine-scale habitat-use by dholes, we chose Bandipur National Park, a 935-km2 subset of the Western Ghats landscape in Karnataka. This protected area predominantly has tropical moist and dry deciduous forests, with some areas degraded to scrub due to human impacts [35]. It supports a density of 35.2/100 km2 medium to large sized prey species [33]. It is contiguous with Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary and Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary to its south and Nagarahole National Park to its northwestern sides (Fig. 2).

Bottom Line: We analyzed the resulting data of dhole signs using likelihood-based habitat occupancy models.Our results are the first rigorous assessment of dhole occupancy at multiple spatial scales with potential conservation value.The approach used in this study has potential utility for cost-effectively assessing spatial distribution and habitat-use in other species, landscapes and reserves.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Post-Graduate Programme in Wildlife Biology and Conservation, Wildlife Conservation Society, India Program, National Centre for Biological Sciences (Tata Institute of Fundamental Research), Bangalore, India; Centre for Wildlife Studies, Bangalore, India.

ABSTRACT
Although they play a critical role in shaping ecological communities, many threatened predator species are data-deficient. The Dhole Cuon alpinus is one such rare canid with a global population thought to be <2500 wild individuals. We assessed habitat occupancy patterns of dholes in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India, to understand ecological and anthropogenic determinants of their distribution and habitat-use. We conducted spatially replicated detection/non-detection surveys of dhole signs along forest trails at two appropriate scales: the entire landscape and a single wildlife reserve. Landscape-scale habitat occupancy was assessed across 38,728 km(2) surveying 206 grid cells of 188-km(2) each. Finer scale habitat-use within 935 km2 Bandipur Reserve was studied surveying 92 grid cells of 13-km(2) km each. We analyzed the resulting data of dhole signs using likelihood-based habitat occupancy models. The models explicitly addressed the problematic issue of imperfect detection of dhole signs during field surveys as well as potential spatial auto-correlation between sign detections made on adjacent trail segments. We show that traditional 'presence versus absence' analyses underestimated dhole habitat occupancy by 60% or 8682 km2 [naïve = 0.27; ψL(SE)  = 0.68 (0.08)] in the landscape. Addressing imperfect sign detections by estimating detection probabilities [p(t)(L) (SE) = 0.12 (0.11)] was critical for reliable estimation. Similar underestimation occurred while estimating habitat-use probability at reserve-scale [naïve = 0.39; Ψs(SE) = 0.71 (0.06)]. At landscape scale, relative abundance of principal ungulate prey primarily influenced dhole habitat occupancy. Habitat-use within a reserve, however, was predominantly and negatively influenced by anthropogenic disturbance. Our results are the first rigorous assessment of dhole occupancy at multiple spatial scales with potential conservation value. The approach used in this study has potential utility for cost-effectively assessing spatial distribution and habitat-use in other species, landscapes and reserves.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus