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Art in time and space: context modulates the relation between art experience and viewing time.

Brieber D, Nadal M, Leder H, Rosenberg R - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Our results show that participants in the museum context liked artworks more, found them more interesting, and viewed them longer than those in the laboratory.The effect of aesthetic appreciation and ambiguity on viewing time was modulated by context: Whereas art appreciation tended to predict viewing time better in the laboratory than in museum context, the relation between ambiguity and viewing time was positive in the museum and negative in the laboratory context.Our results suggest that art museums foster an enduring and focused aesthetic experience and demonstrate that context modulates the relation between art experience and viewing behavior.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University of Vienna, Department of Basic Psychological Research and Research Methods, Faculty of Psychology, Vienna, Austria.

ABSTRACT
The experience of art emerges from the interaction of various cognitive and affective processes. The unfolding of these processes in time and their relation with viewing behavior, however, is still poorly understood. Here we examined the effect of context on the relation between the experience of art and viewing time, the most basic indicator of viewing behavior. Two groups of participants viewed an art exhibition in one of two contexts: one in the museum, the other in the laboratory. In both cases viewing time was recorded with a mobile eye tracking system. After freely viewing the exhibition, participants rated each artwork on liking, interest, understanding, and ambiguity scales. Our results show that participants in the museum context liked artworks more, found them more interesting, and viewed them longer than those in the laboratory. Analyses with mixed effects models revealed that aesthetic appreciation (compounding liking and interest), understanding, and ambiguity predicted viewing time for artworks and for their corresponding labels. The effect of aesthetic appreciation and ambiguity on viewing time was modulated by context: Whereas art appreciation tended to predict viewing time better in the laboratory than in museum context, the relation between ambiguity and viewing time was positive in the museum and negative in the laboratory context. Our results suggest that art museums foster an enduring and focused aesthetic experience and demonstrate that context modulates the relation between art experience and viewing behavior.

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Relationships between viewing time for artworks and art experiences by context.Relationships according to mixed effects model analysis between log transformed viewing time for artworks and A) art appreciation, B) ambiguity, and C) understanding ratings, respectively. Asterisks indicate significant (p<.05) and hashes indicate trends (p<.10) for different slopes for the museum (solid) and laboratory (dashed) context.
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pone-0099019-g003: Relationships between viewing time for artworks and art experiences by context.Relationships according to mixed effects model analysis between log transformed viewing time for artworks and A) art appreciation, B) ambiguity, and C) understanding ratings, respectively. Asterisks indicate significant (p<.05) and hashes indicate trends (p<.10) for different slopes for the museum (solid) and laboratory (dashed) context.

Mentions: The final model revealed a main effect of artwork order, b = −0.089, SE = 0.028, t(533)  = −3.09, p = .009. Thus, independently of context, viewing time decreased from the first to the last artwork of the exhibition (while holding all other predictors constant at grand mean level). The influence of the second control variable, artwork size, was not significant and, therefore, was excluded from the final model. This was probably because allowing the intercepts to vary among artworks already accounted for the variance in viewing time for artworks due to artwork size. Each of the main predictors—appreciation, understanding, ambiguity, and context—significantly predicted viewing time for artworks (Figure 3). Understanding was positively related with viewing time (b = 0.035, SE = 0.016, t(533)  = 2.15, p = .032). Thus, in both contexts, higher sense of understanding was associated with longer viewing time. In accordance with the viewing time analysis reported above, we found a main effect of context (b = −0.312, SE = .131, t(42)  = −2.37, p = .022; with museum as reference group). This indicates a significant difference between contexts in viewing time for artworks. Interestingly, the analysis also revealed interactions between appreciation and context as well as ambiguity and context. People spent more time looking at artworks the more they appreciated them in the museum (b = 0.075, SE = 0.021, t(533)  = 3.46, p<.001) and in the laboratory context (b = 0.123, SE = 0.019, t(533)  = 6.17, p<.001). However, appreciation predicted viewing time better in the laboratory than compared to the museum context (b = 0.048, SE = 0.024, t(533)  = 1.94, p = .052; for the interaction between appreciation and context with museum as reference group). The impact of ambiguity on viewing time also differed significantly between contexts (b = −0.102, SE = 0.029, t(533)  = 3.43, p = .001; for the interaction between ambiguity and context with museum as reference group). While in the museum context more ambiguous artworks received longer looks (b = 0.045, SE = 0.022, t(533)  = 1.99, p = .046), the opposite effect occurred in the laboratory context, where more ambiguous artworks received shorter looks (b = −0.057, SE = 0.021, t(533)  = −2.74, p = .006).


Art in time and space: context modulates the relation between art experience and viewing time.

Brieber D, Nadal M, Leder H, Rosenberg R - PLoS ONE (2014)

Relationships between viewing time for artworks and art experiences by context.Relationships according to mixed effects model analysis between log transformed viewing time for artworks and A) art appreciation, B) ambiguity, and C) understanding ratings, respectively. Asterisks indicate significant (p<.05) and hashes indicate trends (p<.10) for different slopes for the museum (solid) and laboratory (dashed) context.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4043844&req=5

pone-0099019-g003: Relationships between viewing time for artworks and art experiences by context.Relationships according to mixed effects model analysis between log transformed viewing time for artworks and A) art appreciation, B) ambiguity, and C) understanding ratings, respectively. Asterisks indicate significant (p<.05) and hashes indicate trends (p<.10) for different slopes for the museum (solid) and laboratory (dashed) context.
Mentions: The final model revealed a main effect of artwork order, b = −0.089, SE = 0.028, t(533)  = −3.09, p = .009. Thus, independently of context, viewing time decreased from the first to the last artwork of the exhibition (while holding all other predictors constant at grand mean level). The influence of the second control variable, artwork size, was not significant and, therefore, was excluded from the final model. This was probably because allowing the intercepts to vary among artworks already accounted for the variance in viewing time for artworks due to artwork size. Each of the main predictors—appreciation, understanding, ambiguity, and context—significantly predicted viewing time for artworks (Figure 3). Understanding was positively related with viewing time (b = 0.035, SE = 0.016, t(533)  = 2.15, p = .032). Thus, in both contexts, higher sense of understanding was associated with longer viewing time. In accordance with the viewing time analysis reported above, we found a main effect of context (b = −0.312, SE = .131, t(42)  = −2.37, p = .022; with museum as reference group). This indicates a significant difference between contexts in viewing time for artworks. Interestingly, the analysis also revealed interactions between appreciation and context as well as ambiguity and context. People spent more time looking at artworks the more they appreciated them in the museum (b = 0.075, SE = 0.021, t(533)  = 3.46, p<.001) and in the laboratory context (b = 0.123, SE = 0.019, t(533)  = 6.17, p<.001). However, appreciation predicted viewing time better in the laboratory than compared to the museum context (b = 0.048, SE = 0.024, t(533)  = 1.94, p = .052; for the interaction between appreciation and context with museum as reference group). The impact of ambiguity on viewing time also differed significantly between contexts (b = −0.102, SE = 0.029, t(533)  = 3.43, p = .001; for the interaction between ambiguity and context with museum as reference group). While in the museum context more ambiguous artworks received longer looks (b = 0.045, SE = 0.022, t(533)  = 1.99, p = .046), the opposite effect occurred in the laboratory context, where more ambiguous artworks received shorter looks (b = −0.057, SE = 0.021, t(533)  = −2.74, p = .006).

Bottom Line: Our results show that participants in the museum context liked artworks more, found them more interesting, and viewed them longer than those in the laboratory.The effect of aesthetic appreciation and ambiguity on viewing time was modulated by context: Whereas art appreciation tended to predict viewing time better in the laboratory than in museum context, the relation between ambiguity and viewing time was positive in the museum and negative in the laboratory context.Our results suggest that art museums foster an enduring and focused aesthetic experience and demonstrate that context modulates the relation between art experience and viewing behavior.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University of Vienna, Department of Basic Psychological Research and Research Methods, Faculty of Psychology, Vienna, Austria.

ABSTRACT
The experience of art emerges from the interaction of various cognitive and affective processes. The unfolding of these processes in time and their relation with viewing behavior, however, is still poorly understood. Here we examined the effect of context on the relation between the experience of art and viewing time, the most basic indicator of viewing behavior. Two groups of participants viewed an art exhibition in one of two contexts: one in the museum, the other in the laboratory. In both cases viewing time was recorded with a mobile eye tracking system. After freely viewing the exhibition, participants rated each artwork on liking, interest, understanding, and ambiguity scales. Our results show that participants in the museum context liked artworks more, found them more interesting, and viewed them longer than those in the laboratory. Analyses with mixed effects models revealed that aesthetic appreciation (compounding liking and interest), understanding, and ambiguity predicted viewing time for artworks and for their corresponding labels. The effect of aesthetic appreciation and ambiguity on viewing time was modulated by context: Whereas art appreciation tended to predict viewing time better in the laboratory than in museum context, the relation between ambiguity and viewing time was positive in the museum and negative in the laboratory context. Our results suggest that art museums foster an enduring and focused aesthetic experience and demonstrate that context modulates the relation between art experience and viewing behavior.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus