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Art in time and space: context modulates the relation between art experience and viewing time.

Brieber D, Nadal M, Leder H, Rosenberg R - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Here we examined the effect of context on the relation between the experience of art and viewing time, the most basic indicator of viewing behavior.Analyses with mixed effects models revealed that aesthetic appreciation (compounding liking and interest), understanding, and ambiguity predicted viewing time for artworks and for their corresponding labels.Our results suggest that art museums foster an enduring and focused aesthetic experience and demonstrate that context modulates the relation between art experience and viewing behavior.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University of Vienna, Department of Basic Psychological Research and Research Methods, Faculty of Psychology, Vienna, Austria.

ABSTRACT
The experience of art emerges from the interaction of various cognitive and affective processes. The unfolding of these processes in time and their relation with viewing behavior, however, is still poorly understood. Here we examined the effect of context on the relation between the experience of art and viewing time, the most basic indicator of viewing behavior. Two groups of participants viewed an art exhibition in one of two contexts: one in the museum, the other in the laboratory. In both cases viewing time was recorded with a mobile eye tracking system. After freely viewing the exhibition, participants rated each artwork on liking, interest, understanding, and ambiguity scales. Our results show that participants in the museum context liked artworks more, found them more interesting, and viewed them longer than those in the laboratory. Analyses with mixed effects models revealed that aesthetic appreciation (compounding liking and interest), understanding, and ambiguity predicted viewing time for artworks and for their corresponding labels. The effect of aesthetic appreciation and ambiguity on viewing time was modulated by context: Whereas art appreciation tended to predict viewing time better in the laboratory than in museum context, the relation between ambiguity and viewing time was positive in the museum and negative in the laboratory context. Our results suggest that art museums foster an enduring and focused aesthetic experience and demonstrate that context modulates the relation between art experience and viewing behavior.

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Differences in art appreciation, ambiguity, and understanding between contexts.Mean ratings for A) art appreciation, B) ambiguity, and C) understanding split by context. Asterisks indicate significant differences (p<.05). Lab  =  Laboratory. Error bars represent 95% CI.
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pone-0099019-g002: Differences in art appreciation, ambiguity, and understanding between contexts.Mean ratings for A) art appreciation, B) ambiguity, and C) understanding split by context. Asterisks indicate significant differences (p<.05). Lab  =  Laboratory. Error bars represent 95% CI.

Mentions: Exploring the relationship among the mean liking, interest, understanding, and ambiguity ratings, we found that liking and interest were highly correlated (r = .85). Therefore, we decided to aggregate these two variables and form a new one, called appreciation, by computing the mean of liking and interest [25]. Figure 2 depicts mean ratings for appreciation, understanding, and ambiguity for each context. In order to ascertain whether there was an enhanced art experience in the museum, we performed a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) with appreciation, understanding, and ambiguity ratings as dependent variables and context (museum vs. laboratory) as independent variable. This analysis revealed a significant effect of context, F(3, 40)  = 3.52, p = .024. To further explore this effect, separate ANOVAs were conducted for each rating scale. In line with our hypothesis, appreciation was enhanced in the museum compared to the laboratory context, F(1,42)  = 9.50, p = .004, meaning that participants liked the artworks more and found them more interesting in the museum than in the laboratory. Additionally, there was also a trend towards significance for a higher sense of understanding in the museum than compared to the laboratory context, F(1,42)  = 3.37, p = .073. However, we found no difference between contexts with regards to the evaluation of ambiguity (p = .623).


Art in time and space: context modulates the relation between art experience and viewing time.

Brieber D, Nadal M, Leder H, Rosenberg R - PLoS ONE (2014)

Differences in art appreciation, ambiguity, and understanding between contexts.Mean ratings for A) art appreciation, B) ambiguity, and C) understanding split by context. Asterisks indicate significant differences (p<.05). Lab  =  Laboratory. Error bars represent 95% CI.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4043844&req=5

pone-0099019-g002: Differences in art appreciation, ambiguity, and understanding between contexts.Mean ratings for A) art appreciation, B) ambiguity, and C) understanding split by context. Asterisks indicate significant differences (p<.05). Lab  =  Laboratory. Error bars represent 95% CI.
Mentions: Exploring the relationship among the mean liking, interest, understanding, and ambiguity ratings, we found that liking and interest were highly correlated (r = .85). Therefore, we decided to aggregate these two variables and form a new one, called appreciation, by computing the mean of liking and interest [25]. Figure 2 depicts mean ratings for appreciation, understanding, and ambiguity for each context. In order to ascertain whether there was an enhanced art experience in the museum, we performed a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) with appreciation, understanding, and ambiguity ratings as dependent variables and context (museum vs. laboratory) as independent variable. This analysis revealed a significant effect of context, F(3, 40)  = 3.52, p = .024. To further explore this effect, separate ANOVAs were conducted for each rating scale. In line with our hypothesis, appreciation was enhanced in the museum compared to the laboratory context, F(1,42)  = 9.50, p = .004, meaning that participants liked the artworks more and found them more interesting in the museum than in the laboratory. Additionally, there was also a trend towards significance for a higher sense of understanding in the museum than compared to the laboratory context, F(1,42)  = 3.37, p = .073. However, we found no difference between contexts with regards to the evaluation of ambiguity (p = .623).

Bottom Line: Here we examined the effect of context on the relation between the experience of art and viewing time, the most basic indicator of viewing behavior.Analyses with mixed effects models revealed that aesthetic appreciation (compounding liking and interest), understanding, and ambiguity predicted viewing time for artworks and for their corresponding labels.Our results suggest that art museums foster an enduring and focused aesthetic experience and demonstrate that context modulates the relation between art experience and viewing behavior.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University of Vienna, Department of Basic Psychological Research and Research Methods, Faculty of Psychology, Vienna, Austria.

ABSTRACT
The experience of art emerges from the interaction of various cognitive and affective processes. The unfolding of these processes in time and their relation with viewing behavior, however, is still poorly understood. Here we examined the effect of context on the relation between the experience of art and viewing time, the most basic indicator of viewing behavior. Two groups of participants viewed an art exhibition in one of two contexts: one in the museum, the other in the laboratory. In both cases viewing time was recorded with a mobile eye tracking system. After freely viewing the exhibition, participants rated each artwork on liking, interest, understanding, and ambiguity scales. Our results show that participants in the museum context liked artworks more, found them more interesting, and viewed them longer than those in the laboratory. Analyses with mixed effects models revealed that aesthetic appreciation (compounding liking and interest), understanding, and ambiguity predicted viewing time for artworks and for their corresponding labels. The effect of aesthetic appreciation and ambiguity on viewing time was modulated by context: Whereas art appreciation tended to predict viewing time better in the laboratory than in museum context, the relation between ambiguity and viewing time was positive in the museum and negative in the laboratory context. Our results suggest that art museums foster an enduring and focused aesthetic experience and demonstrate that context modulates the relation between art experience and viewing behavior.

Show MeSH