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Art in time and space: context modulates the relation between art experience and viewing time.

Brieber D, Nadal M, Leder H, Rosenberg R - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Our results show that participants in the museum context liked artworks more, found them more interesting, and viewed them longer than those in the laboratory.The effect of aesthetic appreciation and ambiguity on viewing time was modulated by context: Whereas art appreciation tended to predict viewing time better in the laboratory than in museum context, the relation between ambiguity and viewing time was positive in the museum and negative in the laboratory context.Our results suggest that art museums foster an enduring and focused aesthetic experience and demonstrate that context modulates the relation between art experience and viewing behavior.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University of Vienna, Department of Basic Psychological Research and Research Methods, Faculty of Psychology, Vienna, Austria.

ABSTRACT
The experience of art emerges from the interaction of various cognitive and affective processes. The unfolding of these processes in time and their relation with viewing behavior, however, is still poorly understood. Here we examined the effect of context on the relation between the experience of art and viewing time, the most basic indicator of viewing behavior. Two groups of participants viewed an art exhibition in one of two contexts: one in the museum, the other in the laboratory. In both cases viewing time was recorded with a mobile eye tracking system. After freely viewing the exhibition, participants rated each artwork on liking, interest, understanding, and ambiguity scales. Our results show that participants in the museum context liked artworks more, found them more interesting, and viewed them longer than those in the laboratory. Analyses with mixed effects models revealed that aesthetic appreciation (compounding liking and interest), understanding, and ambiguity predicted viewing time for artworks and for their corresponding labels. The effect of aesthetic appreciation and ambiguity on viewing time was modulated by context: Whereas art appreciation tended to predict viewing time better in the laboratory than in museum context, the relation between ambiguity and viewing time was positive in the museum and negative in the laboratory context. Our results suggest that art museums foster an enduring and focused aesthetic experience and demonstrate that context modulates the relation between art experience and viewing behavior.

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Differences in viewing time between contexts.Boxplots for A) viewing time for artworks (VT-A), B) viewing time for labels (VT-L), and C) overall viewing time (VT-O = VT-A+VT-L) split by context. Asterisks indicate significant differences between medians (p<.05). Lab  =  Laboratory.
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pone-0099019-g001: Differences in viewing time between contexts.Boxplots for A) viewing time for artworks (VT-A), B) viewing time for labels (VT-L), and C) overall viewing time (VT-O = VT-A+VT-L) split by context. Asterisks indicate significant differences between medians (p<.05). Lab  =  Laboratory.

Mentions: Viewing time for each artwork and label was analyzed with SMI Begaze 3.2 software. By defining each artwork and label as region of interest (ROI) and computing the sum of all fixation and saccade durations for each ROI, we obtained viewing time measures separately for each artwork and label for each participant. Next, we derived three measures of viewing time: viewing time for artworks (VT-A), viewing time for labels (VT-L), and overall viewing time (VT-O = VT-A+VT-L). Figure 1 shows all viewing time measures for each context. Because viewing time measures were positively skewed, non-parametric statistical tests were used for analysis. Time spent reading the labels (MdnMG = 29.00 s, MdnLG = 21.25 s) did not significantly differ between contexts (p = .391). However, viewing time for artworks (W = 108.5, p = .002, r = −0.47) and overall viewing time (W = 155, p = .042, r = −0.31) differed significantly between contexts. Compared to the laboratory context (Mdn = 28.25 s), people in the museum spent more time looking at artworks (Mdn = 38.75 s). Consequently, overall viewing time was also longer in the museum (Mdn = 70.25 s) than in the laboratory context (Mdn = 50.50 s).


Art in time and space: context modulates the relation between art experience and viewing time.

Brieber D, Nadal M, Leder H, Rosenberg R - PLoS ONE (2014)

Differences in viewing time between contexts.Boxplots for A) viewing time for artworks (VT-A), B) viewing time for labels (VT-L), and C) overall viewing time (VT-O = VT-A+VT-L) split by context. Asterisks indicate significant differences between medians (p<.05). Lab  =  Laboratory.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4043844&req=5

pone-0099019-g001: Differences in viewing time between contexts.Boxplots for A) viewing time for artworks (VT-A), B) viewing time for labels (VT-L), and C) overall viewing time (VT-O = VT-A+VT-L) split by context. Asterisks indicate significant differences between medians (p<.05). Lab  =  Laboratory.
Mentions: Viewing time for each artwork and label was analyzed with SMI Begaze 3.2 software. By defining each artwork and label as region of interest (ROI) and computing the sum of all fixation and saccade durations for each ROI, we obtained viewing time measures separately for each artwork and label for each participant. Next, we derived three measures of viewing time: viewing time for artworks (VT-A), viewing time for labels (VT-L), and overall viewing time (VT-O = VT-A+VT-L). Figure 1 shows all viewing time measures for each context. Because viewing time measures were positively skewed, non-parametric statistical tests were used for analysis. Time spent reading the labels (MdnMG = 29.00 s, MdnLG = 21.25 s) did not significantly differ between contexts (p = .391). However, viewing time for artworks (W = 108.5, p = .002, r = −0.47) and overall viewing time (W = 155, p = .042, r = −0.31) differed significantly between contexts. Compared to the laboratory context (Mdn = 28.25 s), people in the museum spent more time looking at artworks (Mdn = 38.75 s). Consequently, overall viewing time was also longer in the museum (Mdn = 70.25 s) than in the laboratory context (Mdn = 50.50 s).

Bottom Line: Our results show that participants in the museum context liked artworks more, found them more interesting, and viewed them longer than those in the laboratory.The effect of aesthetic appreciation and ambiguity on viewing time was modulated by context: Whereas art appreciation tended to predict viewing time better in the laboratory than in museum context, the relation between ambiguity and viewing time was positive in the museum and negative in the laboratory context.Our results suggest that art museums foster an enduring and focused aesthetic experience and demonstrate that context modulates the relation between art experience and viewing behavior.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University of Vienna, Department of Basic Psychological Research and Research Methods, Faculty of Psychology, Vienna, Austria.

ABSTRACT
The experience of art emerges from the interaction of various cognitive and affective processes. The unfolding of these processes in time and their relation with viewing behavior, however, is still poorly understood. Here we examined the effect of context on the relation between the experience of art and viewing time, the most basic indicator of viewing behavior. Two groups of participants viewed an art exhibition in one of two contexts: one in the museum, the other in the laboratory. In both cases viewing time was recorded with a mobile eye tracking system. After freely viewing the exhibition, participants rated each artwork on liking, interest, understanding, and ambiguity scales. Our results show that participants in the museum context liked artworks more, found them more interesting, and viewed them longer than those in the laboratory. Analyses with mixed effects models revealed that aesthetic appreciation (compounding liking and interest), understanding, and ambiguity predicted viewing time for artworks and for their corresponding labels. The effect of aesthetic appreciation and ambiguity on viewing time was modulated by context: Whereas art appreciation tended to predict viewing time better in the laboratory than in museum context, the relation between ambiguity and viewing time was positive in the museum and negative in the laboratory context. Our results suggest that art museums foster an enduring and focused aesthetic experience and demonstrate that context modulates the relation between art experience and viewing behavior.

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