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Methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide fluxes in soil profile under a winter wheat-summer maize rotation in the North China Plain.

Wang Y, Hu C, Ming H, Oenema O, Schaefer DA, Dong W, Zhang Y, Li X - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: GHG production and consumption in soil layers were inferred using Fick's law.Results showed nitrogen application significantly increased N2O fluxes in soil down to 90 cm but did not affect CH4 and CO2 fluxes.The top 0-60 cm of soil was a sink of atmospheric CH4, and a source of both CO2 and N2O, more than 90% of the annual cumulative GHG fluxes originated at depths shallower than 90 cm; the subsoil (>90 cm) was not a major source or sink of GHG, rather it acted as a 'reservoir'.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Agricultural Water Resources, Center for Agricultural Resources Research, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, China.

ABSTRACT
The production and consumption of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) in soil profile are poorly understood. This work sought to quantify the GHG production and consumption at seven depths (0-30, 30-60, 60-90, 90-150, 150-200, 200-250 and 250-300 cm) in a long-term field experiment with a winter wheat-summer maize rotation system, and four N application rates (0; 200; 400 and 600 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)) in the North China Plain. The gas samples were taken twice a week and analyzed by gas chromatography. GHG production and consumption in soil layers were inferred using Fick's law. Results showed nitrogen application significantly increased N2O fluxes in soil down to 90 cm but did not affect CH4 and CO2 fluxes. Soil moisture played an important role in soil profile GHG fluxes; both CH4 consumption and CO2 fluxes in and from soil tended to decrease with increasing soil water filled pore space (WFPS). The top 0-60 cm of soil was a sink of atmospheric CH4, and a source of both CO2 and N2O, more than 90% of the annual cumulative GHG fluxes originated at depths shallower than 90 cm; the subsoil (>90 cm) was not a major source or sink of GHG, rather it acted as a 'reservoir'. This study provides quantitative evidence for the production and consumption of CH4, CO2 and N2O in the soil profile.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Water-filled pore space (WFPS) at various soil depths in a winter wheat-summer maize double cropping rotation receiving 0, 200, 400 and 600 kg of N ha−1 year−1, in 2007–2008.Bars in figures indicate 1 standard deviation (n = 3). (A); Soil temperatures at various soil depths in winter wheat-summer maize double cropping rotation receiving 0, 200, 400 and 600 kg of N ha−1 year−1, in 2007–2008.(B)
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pone-0098445-g005: Water-filled pore space (WFPS) at various soil depths in a winter wheat-summer maize double cropping rotation receiving 0, 200, 400 and 600 kg of N ha−1 year−1, in 2007–2008.Bars in figures indicate 1 standard deviation (n = 3). (A); Soil temperatures at various soil depths in winter wheat-summer maize double cropping rotation receiving 0, 200, 400 and 600 kg of N ha−1 year−1, in 2007–2008.(B)

Mentions: Fertilizer application, irrigation and precipitation events triggered an efflux of N2O from the topsoil to the atmosphere (Figure 4). The peak efflux, associated with the supplemental N fertilizer application and flooding in early April (wheat growing season), was accompanied with significant downward directed fluxes below the topsoil layer (0–30 cm). There was another relatively large efflux of N2O into the atmosphere during the relatively moist and warm August summer month (maize growing season) (Figures 4 and 5), but this peak was not accompanied with significant downward directed fluxes below the topsoil layer. In the subsoil, fluxes were relatively small and directions variable (Figure 4). Essentially all seasonal fluctuations of N2O flux rates in the subsoil (60–200 cm) seem to be related to fertilizer application, irrigation and rainfall events and changes in WFPS; therefore, there was no clear evidence of N2O production in the subsoil after excluding these influence of interfering factors [16].


Methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide fluxes in soil profile under a winter wheat-summer maize rotation in the North China Plain.

Wang Y, Hu C, Ming H, Oenema O, Schaefer DA, Dong W, Zhang Y, Li X - PLoS ONE (2014)

Water-filled pore space (WFPS) at various soil depths in a winter wheat-summer maize double cropping rotation receiving 0, 200, 400 and 600 kg of N ha−1 year−1, in 2007–2008.Bars in figures indicate 1 standard deviation (n = 3). (A); Soil temperatures at various soil depths in winter wheat-summer maize double cropping rotation receiving 0, 200, 400 and 600 kg of N ha−1 year−1, in 2007–2008.(B)
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4043841&req=5

pone-0098445-g005: Water-filled pore space (WFPS) at various soil depths in a winter wheat-summer maize double cropping rotation receiving 0, 200, 400 and 600 kg of N ha−1 year−1, in 2007–2008.Bars in figures indicate 1 standard deviation (n = 3). (A); Soil temperatures at various soil depths in winter wheat-summer maize double cropping rotation receiving 0, 200, 400 and 600 kg of N ha−1 year−1, in 2007–2008.(B)
Mentions: Fertilizer application, irrigation and precipitation events triggered an efflux of N2O from the topsoil to the atmosphere (Figure 4). The peak efflux, associated with the supplemental N fertilizer application and flooding in early April (wheat growing season), was accompanied with significant downward directed fluxes below the topsoil layer (0–30 cm). There was another relatively large efflux of N2O into the atmosphere during the relatively moist and warm August summer month (maize growing season) (Figures 4 and 5), but this peak was not accompanied with significant downward directed fluxes below the topsoil layer. In the subsoil, fluxes were relatively small and directions variable (Figure 4). Essentially all seasonal fluctuations of N2O flux rates in the subsoil (60–200 cm) seem to be related to fertilizer application, irrigation and rainfall events and changes in WFPS; therefore, there was no clear evidence of N2O production in the subsoil after excluding these influence of interfering factors [16].

Bottom Line: GHG production and consumption in soil layers were inferred using Fick's law.Results showed nitrogen application significantly increased N2O fluxes in soil down to 90 cm but did not affect CH4 and CO2 fluxes.The top 0-60 cm of soil was a sink of atmospheric CH4, and a source of both CO2 and N2O, more than 90% of the annual cumulative GHG fluxes originated at depths shallower than 90 cm; the subsoil (>90 cm) was not a major source or sink of GHG, rather it acted as a 'reservoir'.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Agricultural Water Resources, Center for Agricultural Resources Research, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, China.

ABSTRACT
The production and consumption of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) in soil profile are poorly understood. This work sought to quantify the GHG production and consumption at seven depths (0-30, 30-60, 60-90, 90-150, 150-200, 200-250 and 250-300 cm) in a long-term field experiment with a winter wheat-summer maize rotation system, and four N application rates (0; 200; 400 and 600 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)) in the North China Plain. The gas samples were taken twice a week and analyzed by gas chromatography. GHG production and consumption in soil layers were inferred using Fick's law. Results showed nitrogen application significantly increased N2O fluxes in soil down to 90 cm but did not affect CH4 and CO2 fluxes. Soil moisture played an important role in soil profile GHG fluxes; both CH4 consumption and CO2 fluxes in and from soil tended to decrease with increasing soil water filled pore space (WFPS). The top 0-60 cm of soil was a sink of atmospheric CH4, and a source of both CO2 and N2O, more than 90% of the annual cumulative GHG fluxes originated at depths shallower than 90 cm; the subsoil (>90 cm) was not a major source or sink of GHG, rather it acted as a 'reservoir'. This study provides quantitative evidence for the production and consumption of CH4, CO2 and N2O in the soil profile.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus