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Methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide fluxes in soil profile under a winter wheat-summer maize rotation in the North China Plain.

Wang Y, Hu C, Ming H, Oenema O, Schaefer DA, Dong W, Zhang Y, Li X - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: GHG production and consumption in soil layers were inferred using Fick's law.Results showed nitrogen application significantly increased N2O fluxes in soil down to 90 cm but did not affect CH4 and CO2 fluxes.The top 0-60 cm of soil was a sink of atmospheric CH4, and a source of both CO2 and N2O, more than 90% of the annual cumulative GHG fluxes originated at depths shallower than 90 cm; the subsoil (>90 cm) was not a major source or sink of GHG, rather it acted as a 'reservoir'.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Agricultural Water Resources, Center for Agricultural Resources Research, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, China.

ABSTRACT
The production and consumption of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) in soil profile are poorly understood. This work sought to quantify the GHG production and consumption at seven depths (0-30, 30-60, 60-90, 90-150, 150-200, 200-250 and 250-300 cm) in a long-term field experiment with a winter wheat-summer maize rotation system, and four N application rates (0; 200; 400 and 600 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)) in the North China Plain. The gas samples were taken twice a week and analyzed by gas chromatography. GHG production and consumption in soil layers were inferred using Fick's law. Results showed nitrogen application significantly increased N2O fluxes in soil down to 90 cm but did not affect CH4 and CO2 fluxes. Soil moisture played an important role in soil profile GHG fluxes; both CH4 consumption and CO2 fluxes in and from soil tended to decrease with increasing soil water filled pore space (WFPS). The top 0-60 cm of soil was a sink of atmospheric CH4, and a source of both CO2 and N2O, more than 90% of the annual cumulative GHG fluxes originated at depths shallower than 90 cm; the subsoil (>90 cm) was not a major source or sink of GHG, rather it acted as a 'reservoir'. This study provides quantitative evidence for the production and consumption of CH4, CO2 and N2O in the soil profile.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

CO2 flux rates (means ± standard deviations, n = 3) at various soil depths in a winter wheat-summer maize double cropping rotation receiving 0, 200, 400 and 600 kg of N ha−1 year−1, in 2007–2008.Vertical dashed lines indicate a change in crop. Bars in figures indicate 1 standard deviation (n = 3). Note the differences in Y-axes.
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pone-0098445-g003: CO2 flux rates (means ± standard deviations, n = 3) at various soil depths in a winter wheat-summer maize double cropping rotation receiving 0, 200, 400 and 600 kg of N ha−1 year−1, in 2007–2008.Vertical dashed lines indicate a change in crop. Bars in figures indicate 1 standard deviation (n = 3). Note the differences in Y-axes.

Mentions: There was a large efflux of CO2 from the top 30 cm of soil to the atmosphere from March till June, i.e., during the second half of the wheat growing season, and from August till October, i.e., during the second half of the maize growing season (Figure 3). The same holds for the upward flux from the layer 30–60 to the layer 0–30 cm. These patterns were related to the crop growing seasons of wheat and maize, and to the changes in water filled pore space (WFPS) and soil temperature. There were no clear relationships between N treatments and CO2 fluxes. Treatment N200 had the smallest flux from the layer 0–30 cm to the atmosphere, but the largest from 30–60 cm to 0–30 cm from April to May. Upward fluxes from the layers 60–90 cm and especially below this layer were much smaller. There were small but significant changes in fluxes in the subsoil at the transition of the winter-wheat growing season to the summer-maize growing season (Figure 3).


Methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide fluxes in soil profile under a winter wheat-summer maize rotation in the North China Plain.

Wang Y, Hu C, Ming H, Oenema O, Schaefer DA, Dong W, Zhang Y, Li X - PLoS ONE (2014)

CO2 flux rates (means ± standard deviations, n = 3) at various soil depths in a winter wheat-summer maize double cropping rotation receiving 0, 200, 400 and 600 kg of N ha−1 year−1, in 2007–2008.Vertical dashed lines indicate a change in crop. Bars in figures indicate 1 standard deviation (n = 3). Note the differences in Y-axes.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4043841&req=5

pone-0098445-g003: CO2 flux rates (means ± standard deviations, n = 3) at various soil depths in a winter wheat-summer maize double cropping rotation receiving 0, 200, 400 and 600 kg of N ha−1 year−1, in 2007–2008.Vertical dashed lines indicate a change in crop. Bars in figures indicate 1 standard deviation (n = 3). Note the differences in Y-axes.
Mentions: There was a large efflux of CO2 from the top 30 cm of soil to the atmosphere from March till June, i.e., during the second half of the wheat growing season, and from August till October, i.e., during the second half of the maize growing season (Figure 3). The same holds for the upward flux from the layer 30–60 to the layer 0–30 cm. These patterns were related to the crop growing seasons of wheat and maize, and to the changes in water filled pore space (WFPS) and soil temperature. There were no clear relationships between N treatments and CO2 fluxes. Treatment N200 had the smallest flux from the layer 0–30 cm to the atmosphere, but the largest from 30–60 cm to 0–30 cm from April to May. Upward fluxes from the layers 60–90 cm and especially below this layer were much smaller. There were small but significant changes in fluxes in the subsoil at the transition of the winter-wheat growing season to the summer-maize growing season (Figure 3).

Bottom Line: GHG production and consumption in soil layers were inferred using Fick's law.Results showed nitrogen application significantly increased N2O fluxes in soil down to 90 cm but did not affect CH4 and CO2 fluxes.The top 0-60 cm of soil was a sink of atmospheric CH4, and a source of both CO2 and N2O, more than 90% of the annual cumulative GHG fluxes originated at depths shallower than 90 cm; the subsoil (>90 cm) was not a major source or sink of GHG, rather it acted as a 'reservoir'.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Agricultural Water Resources, Center for Agricultural Resources Research, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, China.

ABSTRACT
The production and consumption of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) in soil profile are poorly understood. This work sought to quantify the GHG production and consumption at seven depths (0-30, 30-60, 60-90, 90-150, 150-200, 200-250 and 250-300 cm) in a long-term field experiment with a winter wheat-summer maize rotation system, and four N application rates (0; 200; 400 and 600 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)) in the North China Plain. The gas samples were taken twice a week and analyzed by gas chromatography. GHG production and consumption in soil layers were inferred using Fick's law. Results showed nitrogen application significantly increased N2O fluxes in soil down to 90 cm but did not affect CH4 and CO2 fluxes. Soil moisture played an important role in soil profile GHG fluxes; both CH4 consumption and CO2 fluxes in and from soil tended to decrease with increasing soil water filled pore space (WFPS). The top 0-60 cm of soil was a sink of atmospheric CH4, and a source of both CO2 and N2O, more than 90% of the annual cumulative GHG fluxes originated at depths shallower than 90 cm; the subsoil (>90 cm) was not a major source or sink of GHG, rather it acted as a 'reservoir'. This study provides quantitative evidence for the production and consumption of CH4, CO2 and N2O in the soil profile.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus