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A century of the evolution of the urban area in Shenyang, China.

Liu M, Xu Y, Hu Y, Li C, Sun F, Chen T - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: The results showed that the urban area of Shenyang increased 43.39-fold during the study period and that the growth rate has accelerated since the 1980s.The results of landscape metrics indicate that the urban landscape of Shenyang originally was highly aggregated, but has become increasingly fragmented.Over a long time scale, the urbanization process has been affected by major historical events.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Forest and Soil Ecology, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.

ABSTRACT
Analyzing spatiotemporal characteristics of the historical urbanization process is essential in understanding the dynamics of urbanization and scientifically planned urban development. Based on historical urban area maps and remote sensing images, this study examined the urban expansion of Shenyang from 1910 to 2010 using area statistics, typology identification, and landscape metrics approaches. The population and gross domestic product were analyzed as driving factors. The results showed that the urban area of Shenyang increased 43.39-fold during the study period and that the growth rate has accelerated since the 1980s. Three urban growth types were distinguished: infilling, edge-expansion, and spontaneous growth. Edge-expansion was the primary growth type. Infilling growth became the main growth type in the periods 1946-70, 1988-97, and 2004-10. Spontaneous growth was concentrated in the period of 1997 to 2000. The results of landscape metrics indicate that the urban landscape of Shenyang originally was highly aggregated, but has become increasingly fragmented. The urban fringe area was the traditional hot zone of urbanization. Shenyang was mainly located north of the Hun River before 1980; however, the south side of the river has been the hot zone of urbanization since the 1980s. The increase of urban area strongly correlated with the growth of GDP and population. Over a long time scale, the urbanization process has been affected by major historical events.

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Change in the landscape indices during the period 1910–2010: (a) number of patches (NP), (b)Patch density (PD), (c) landscape shape index (LSI), and (d) aggregation index (AI).
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pone-0098847-g006: Change in the landscape indices during the period 1910–2010: (a) number of patches (NP), (b)Patch density (PD), (c) landscape shape index (LSI), and (d) aggregation index (AI).

Mentions: The trajectories of landscape metrics are shown in Fig.6. NP increased with the emergence of the spontaneous growth type (Fig.6(a)). NP showed an increasing trend with the urban expansion. However, NP decreased in the 1990s because the open space in the urban patches showed infilling growth. PD quantifies the density of patches, which kept decreasing in the study period (Fig.6(b)). The decrease of PD indicates that the mean scale of patches kept increasing and single urban patches became larger. LSI qualifies the shape complexity of patches (Fig.6(c)). LSI maintained an increasing trend, which indicates that the patch shapes became more and more complicated. LSI had a dramatic increase from 2000 to 2004, which was associated with fast development. The value of AI was nearly 100 from 1910 to 2010, which indicates that urban patches show a very high degree of concentrated spatial distribution (Fig.6(c)).


A century of the evolution of the urban area in Shenyang, China.

Liu M, Xu Y, Hu Y, Li C, Sun F, Chen T - PLoS ONE (2014)

Change in the landscape indices during the period 1910–2010: (a) number of patches (NP), (b)Patch density (PD), (c) landscape shape index (LSI), and (d) aggregation index (AI).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4043834&req=5

pone-0098847-g006: Change in the landscape indices during the period 1910–2010: (a) number of patches (NP), (b)Patch density (PD), (c) landscape shape index (LSI), and (d) aggregation index (AI).
Mentions: The trajectories of landscape metrics are shown in Fig.6. NP increased with the emergence of the spontaneous growth type (Fig.6(a)). NP showed an increasing trend with the urban expansion. However, NP decreased in the 1990s because the open space in the urban patches showed infilling growth. PD quantifies the density of patches, which kept decreasing in the study period (Fig.6(b)). The decrease of PD indicates that the mean scale of patches kept increasing and single urban patches became larger. LSI qualifies the shape complexity of patches (Fig.6(c)). LSI maintained an increasing trend, which indicates that the patch shapes became more and more complicated. LSI had a dramatic increase from 2000 to 2004, which was associated with fast development. The value of AI was nearly 100 from 1910 to 2010, which indicates that urban patches show a very high degree of concentrated spatial distribution (Fig.6(c)).

Bottom Line: The results showed that the urban area of Shenyang increased 43.39-fold during the study period and that the growth rate has accelerated since the 1980s.The results of landscape metrics indicate that the urban landscape of Shenyang originally was highly aggregated, but has become increasingly fragmented.Over a long time scale, the urbanization process has been affected by major historical events.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Forest and Soil Ecology, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.

ABSTRACT
Analyzing spatiotemporal characteristics of the historical urbanization process is essential in understanding the dynamics of urbanization and scientifically planned urban development. Based on historical urban area maps and remote sensing images, this study examined the urban expansion of Shenyang from 1910 to 2010 using area statistics, typology identification, and landscape metrics approaches. The population and gross domestic product were analyzed as driving factors. The results showed that the urban area of Shenyang increased 43.39-fold during the study period and that the growth rate has accelerated since the 1980s. Three urban growth types were distinguished: infilling, edge-expansion, and spontaneous growth. Edge-expansion was the primary growth type. Infilling growth became the main growth type in the periods 1946-70, 1988-97, and 2004-10. Spontaneous growth was concentrated in the period of 1997 to 2000. The results of landscape metrics indicate that the urban landscape of Shenyang originally was highly aggregated, but has become increasingly fragmented. The urban fringe area was the traditional hot zone of urbanization. Shenyang was mainly located north of the Hun River before 1980; however, the south side of the river has been the hot zone of urbanization since the 1980s. The increase of urban area strongly correlated with the growth of GDP and population. Over a long time scale, the urbanization process has been affected by major historical events.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus