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New mitochondrial and nuclear evidences support recent demographic expansion and an atypical phylogeographic pattern in the spittlebug Philaenus spumarius (Hemiptera, Aphrophoridae).

Rodrigues AS, Silva SE, Marabuto E, Silva DN, Wilson MR, Thompson V, Yurtsever S, Halkka A, Borges PA, Quartau JA, Paulo OS, Seabra SG - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Unexpected patterns of recent gene-flow events between Mediterranean peninsulas, a close relationship between Iberia and North Africa, as well as high levels of genetic diversity being maintained in northern Europe were found.The mitochondrial pattern does not exactly match to the nuclear pattern suggesting that the current biogeographic pattern of P. spumarius may be the result of both secondary admixture and incomplete lineage sorting.The hypothesis of recent colonization of North America from both western and northern Europe is corroborated by our data and probably resulted from accidental human translocations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Computational Biology and Population Genomics Group, Centro de Biologia Ambiental, Departamento de Biologia Animal/Platform for Enhancing Ecological Research & Sustainability, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.

ABSTRACT
Philaenus spumarius is a widespread insect species in the Holarctic region. Here, by focusing on the mtDNA gene COI but also using the COII and Cyt b genes and the nuclear gene EF-1α, we tried to explain how and when its current biogeographic pattern evolved by providing time estimates of the main demographic and evolutionary events and investigating its colonization patterns in and out of Eurasia. Evidence of recent divergence and expansion events at less than 0.5 Ma ago indicate that climate fluctuations in the Mid-Late Pleistocene were important in shaping the current phylogeographic pattern of the species. Data support a first split and differentiation of P. spumarius into two main mitochondrial lineages: the "western", in the Mediterranean region and the "eastern", in Anatolia/Caucasus. It also supports a following differentiation of the "western" lineage into two sub-lineages: the "western-Mediterranean", in Iberia and the "eastern-Mediterranean" in the Balkans. The recent pattern seems to result from postglacial range expansion from Iberia and Caucasus/Anatolia, thus not following one of the four common paradigms. Unexpected patterns of recent gene-flow events between Mediterranean peninsulas, a close relationship between Iberia and North Africa, as well as high levels of genetic diversity being maintained in northern Europe were found. The mitochondrial pattern does not exactly match to the nuclear pattern suggesting that the current biogeographic pattern of P. spumarius may be the result of both secondary admixture and incomplete lineage sorting. The hypothesis of recent colonization of North America from both western and northern Europe is corroborated by our data and probably resulted from accidental human translocations. A probable British origin for the populations of the Azores and New Zealand was revealed, however, for the Azores the distribution of populations in high altitude native forests is somewhat puzzling and may imply a natural colonization of the archipelago.

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Maximum Parsimony tree based on nuclear gene elongation factor-1α.Values above branches correspond to MP bootstrap (only values > 50% are shown) and Bayesian posterior probability values. Black: GenBank sequences (see [26]); blue individuals correspond to the eastern mtDNA group; red individuals correspond to the eastern-Mediterranean mtDNA group and green individuals to the western-Mediterranean mtDNA group.
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pone-0098375-g004: Maximum Parsimony tree based on nuclear gene elongation factor-1α.Values above branches correspond to MP bootstrap (only values > 50% are shown) and Bayesian posterior probability values. Black: GenBank sequences (see [26]); blue individuals correspond to the eastern mtDNA group; red individuals correspond to the eastern-Mediterranean mtDNA group and green individuals to the western-Mediterranean mtDNA group.

Mentions: In the MP (Fig. 4) and BI (not shown) phylogenetic trees obtained for nuclear gene EF-1α three main groups could also be distinguished: clade A, clade B and clade C. However, these groups were not totally congruent to the groups found for the concatenated mtDNA genes. The clade A includes samples from our “eastern-Mediterranean” haplogroup and also from Georgia, Bulgaria, Hungary, Greece and Italy (E2 clade, in [26]). The clade B includes individuals from our “western-Mediterranean” group and from Portugal, Spain and Italy (E3 clade, in [26]). The clade C, however, is constituted by individuals from our three main mitochondrial groups and from Russia, Norway, Alps, Crimea, Poland and Ukraine (E1 clade, in [26]). Although the three groups have good bootstrap support, the branching order is unsolved since there is very low support for the branch clustering the clades A and B (Fig. 4). We also observed that both alleles of the most heterozygous samples are clustered within the same clade (Clade C – Arrabida_5, Spain_2, UK_7, Belgium_1, Slovenia_1.1 and USA_2 and Clade B – Morocco_6.1), with the exception for the Azores_1, Italy_2 and Keçan_N1 samples which have one allele in the clade C and the other allele in the clades A or B.


New mitochondrial and nuclear evidences support recent demographic expansion and an atypical phylogeographic pattern in the spittlebug Philaenus spumarius (Hemiptera, Aphrophoridae).

Rodrigues AS, Silva SE, Marabuto E, Silva DN, Wilson MR, Thompson V, Yurtsever S, Halkka A, Borges PA, Quartau JA, Paulo OS, Seabra SG - PLoS ONE (2014)

Maximum Parsimony tree based on nuclear gene elongation factor-1α.Values above branches correspond to MP bootstrap (only values > 50% are shown) and Bayesian posterior probability values. Black: GenBank sequences (see [26]); blue individuals correspond to the eastern mtDNA group; red individuals correspond to the eastern-Mediterranean mtDNA group and green individuals to the western-Mediterranean mtDNA group.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4043774&req=5

pone-0098375-g004: Maximum Parsimony tree based on nuclear gene elongation factor-1α.Values above branches correspond to MP bootstrap (only values > 50% are shown) and Bayesian posterior probability values. Black: GenBank sequences (see [26]); blue individuals correspond to the eastern mtDNA group; red individuals correspond to the eastern-Mediterranean mtDNA group and green individuals to the western-Mediterranean mtDNA group.
Mentions: In the MP (Fig. 4) and BI (not shown) phylogenetic trees obtained for nuclear gene EF-1α three main groups could also be distinguished: clade A, clade B and clade C. However, these groups were not totally congruent to the groups found for the concatenated mtDNA genes. The clade A includes samples from our “eastern-Mediterranean” haplogroup and also from Georgia, Bulgaria, Hungary, Greece and Italy (E2 clade, in [26]). The clade B includes individuals from our “western-Mediterranean” group and from Portugal, Spain and Italy (E3 clade, in [26]). The clade C, however, is constituted by individuals from our three main mitochondrial groups and from Russia, Norway, Alps, Crimea, Poland and Ukraine (E1 clade, in [26]). Although the three groups have good bootstrap support, the branching order is unsolved since there is very low support for the branch clustering the clades A and B (Fig. 4). We also observed that both alleles of the most heterozygous samples are clustered within the same clade (Clade C – Arrabida_5, Spain_2, UK_7, Belgium_1, Slovenia_1.1 and USA_2 and Clade B – Morocco_6.1), with the exception for the Azores_1, Italy_2 and Keçan_N1 samples which have one allele in the clade C and the other allele in the clades A or B.

Bottom Line: Unexpected patterns of recent gene-flow events between Mediterranean peninsulas, a close relationship between Iberia and North Africa, as well as high levels of genetic diversity being maintained in northern Europe were found.The mitochondrial pattern does not exactly match to the nuclear pattern suggesting that the current biogeographic pattern of P. spumarius may be the result of both secondary admixture and incomplete lineage sorting.The hypothesis of recent colonization of North America from both western and northern Europe is corroborated by our data and probably resulted from accidental human translocations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Computational Biology and Population Genomics Group, Centro de Biologia Ambiental, Departamento de Biologia Animal/Platform for Enhancing Ecological Research & Sustainability, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.

ABSTRACT
Philaenus spumarius is a widespread insect species in the Holarctic region. Here, by focusing on the mtDNA gene COI but also using the COII and Cyt b genes and the nuclear gene EF-1α, we tried to explain how and when its current biogeographic pattern evolved by providing time estimates of the main demographic and evolutionary events and investigating its colonization patterns in and out of Eurasia. Evidence of recent divergence and expansion events at less than 0.5 Ma ago indicate that climate fluctuations in the Mid-Late Pleistocene were important in shaping the current phylogeographic pattern of the species. Data support a first split and differentiation of P. spumarius into two main mitochondrial lineages: the "western", in the Mediterranean region and the "eastern", in Anatolia/Caucasus. It also supports a following differentiation of the "western" lineage into two sub-lineages: the "western-Mediterranean", in Iberia and the "eastern-Mediterranean" in the Balkans. The recent pattern seems to result from postglacial range expansion from Iberia and Caucasus/Anatolia, thus not following one of the four common paradigms. Unexpected patterns of recent gene-flow events between Mediterranean peninsulas, a close relationship between Iberia and North Africa, as well as high levels of genetic diversity being maintained in northern Europe were found. The mitochondrial pattern does not exactly match to the nuclear pattern suggesting that the current biogeographic pattern of P. spumarius may be the result of both secondary admixture and incomplete lineage sorting. The hypothesis of recent colonization of North America from both western and northern Europe is corroborated by our data and probably resulted from accidental human translocations. A probable British origin for the populations of the Azores and New Zealand was revealed, however, for the Azores the distribution of populations in high altitude native forests is somewhat puzzling and may imply a natural colonization of the archipelago.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus