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New mitochondrial and nuclear evidences support recent demographic expansion and an atypical phylogeographic pattern in the spittlebug Philaenus spumarius (Hemiptera, Aphrophoridae).

Rodrigues AS, Silva SE, Marabuto E, Silva DN, Wilson MR, Thompson V, Yurtsever S, Halkka A, Borges PA, Quartau JA, Paulo OS, Seabra SG - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Unexpected patterns of recent gene-flow events between Mediterranean peninsulas, a close relationship between Iberia and North Africa, as well as high levels of genetic diversity being maintained in northern Europe were found.The mitochondrial pattern does not exactly match to the nuclear pattern suggesting that the current biogeographic pattern of P. spumarius may be the result of both secondary admixture and incomplete lineage sorting.The hypothesis of recent colonization of North America from both western and northern Europe is corroborated by our data and probably resulted from accidental human translocations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Computational Biology and Population Genomics Group, Centro de Biologia Ambiental, Departamento de Biologia Animal/Platform for Enhancing Ecological Research & Sustainability, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.

ABSTRACT
Philaenus spumarius is a widespread insect species in the Holarctic region. Here, by focusing on the mtDNA gene COI but also using the COII and Cyt b genes and the nuclear gene EF-1α, we tried to explain how and when its current biogeographic pattern evolved by providing time estimates of the main demographic and evolutionary events and investigating its colonization patterns in and out of Eurasia. Evidence of recent divergence and expansion events at less than 0.5 Ma ago indicate that climate fluctuations in the Mid-Late Pleistocene were important in shaping the current phylogeographic pattern of the species. Data support a first split and differentiation of P. spumarius into two main mitochondrial lineages: the "western", in the Mediterranean region and the "eastern", in Anatolia/Caucasus. It also supports a following differentiation of the "western" lineage into two sub-lineages: the "western-Mediterranean", in Iberia and the "eastern-Mediterranean" in the Balkans. The recent pattern seems to result from postglacial range expansion from Iberia and Caucasus/Anatolia, thus not following one of the four common paradigms. Unexpected patterns of recent gene-flow events between Mediterranean peninsulas, a close relationship between Iberia and North Africa, as well as high levels of genetic diversity being maintained in northern Europe were found. The mitochondrial pattern does not exactly match to the nuclear pattern suggesting that the current biogeographic pattern of P. spumarius may be the result of both secondary admixture and incomplete lineage sorting. The hypothesis of recent colonization of North America from both western and northern Europe is corroborated by our data and probably resulted from accidental human translocations. A probable British origin for the populations of the Azores and New Zealand was revealed, however, for the Azores the distribution of populations in high altitude native forests is somewhat puzzling and may imply a natural colonization of the archipelago.

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Sampling locations of Philaenus spumarius in (a) Europe and Anatolia (b) North America and (c) New Zealand in each geographic region.1 – Azores; 2 – Iberian Peninsula; 3 – Morocco; 4 – France; 5 – United Kingdom; 6 – Belgium; 7 – Italian Peninsula; 8 – Sicily; 9 – Slovenia; 10 – Balkans (Bulgaria; Greece; European Turkey); 11 – Anatolian Peninsula; 12 – Finland; 13 – North America (Canada and United States of America); 14 – New Zealand. Circle sizes are proportional to the number of individuals. Circles: green – “western-Mediterranean” mtDNA group; red – “eastern-Mediterranean” mtDNA group; blue – “eastern” mtDNA group. Circle sizes are proportional to the number of samples.
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pone-0098375-g001: Sampling locations of Philaenus spumarius in (a) Europe and Anatolia (b) North America and (c) New Zealand in each geographic region.1 – Azores; 2 – Iberian Peninsula; 3 – Morocco; 4 – France; 5 – United Kingdom; 6 – Belgium; 7 – Italian Peninsula; 8 – Sicily; 9 – Slovenia; 10 – Balkans (Bulgaria; Greece; European Turkey); 11 – Anatolian Peninsula; 12 – Finland; 13 – North America (Canada and United States of America); 14 – New Zealand. Circle sizes are proportional to the number of individuals. Circles: green – “western-Mediterranean” mtDNA group; red – “eastern-Mediterranean” mtDNA group; blue – “eastern” mtDNA group. Circle sizes are proportional to the number of samples.

Mentions: A total of 196 specimens of P. spumarius were collected or sent by collaborators between 2007 and 2011 from 75 sampling locations across Europe, two from Anatolia, five from North Africa, three from North America and one from New Zealand (Fig. 1 and Table S1). Adult insects were captured using a sweep net suitable for low-growing vegetation and an entomological aspirator. In some cases, larval stages were collected by hand. Specimens were preserved in absolute ethanol or dried in silica gel and stored at room temperature.


New mitochondrial and nuclear evidences support recent demographic expansion and an atypical phylogeographic pattern in the spittlebug Philaenus spumarius (Hemiptera, Aphrophoridae).

Rodrigues AS, Silva SE, Marabuto E, Silva DN, Wilson MR, Thompson V, Yurtsever S, Halkka A, Borges PA, Quartau JA, Paulo OS, Seabra SG - PLoS ONE (2014)

Sampling locations of Philaenus spumarius in (a) Europe and Anatolia (b) North America and (c) New Zealand in each geographic region.1 – Azores; 2 – Iberian Peninsula; 3 – Morocco; 4 – France; 5 – United Kingdom; 6 – Belgium; 7 – Italian Peninsula; 8 – Sicily; 9 – Slovenia; 10 – Balkans (Bulgaria; Greece; European Turkey); 11 – Anatolian Peninsula; 12 – Finland; 13 – North America (Canada and United States of America); 14 – New Zealand. Circle sizes are proportional to the number of individuals. Circles: green – “western-Mediterranean” mtDNA group; red – “eastern-Mediterranean” mtDNA group; blue – “eastern” mtDNA group. Circle sizes are proportional to the number of samples.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4043774&req=5

pone-0098375-g001: Sampling locations of Philaenus spumarius in (a) Europe and Anatolia (b) North America and (c) New Zealand in each geographic region.1 – Azores; 2 – Iberian Peninsula; 3 – Morocco; 4 – France; 5 – United Kingdom; 6 – Belgium; 7 – Italian Peninsula; 8 – Sicily; 9 – Slovenia; 10 – Balkans (Bulgaria; Greece; European Turkey); 11 – Anatolian Peninsula; 12 – Finland; 13 – North America (Canada and United States of America); 14 – New Zealand. Circle sizes are proportional to the number of individuals. Circles: green – “western-Mediterranean” mtDNA group; red – “eastern-Mediterranean” mtDNA group; blue – “eastern” mtDNA group. Circle sizes are proportional to the number of samples.
Mentions: A total of 196 specimens of P. spumarius were collected or sent by collaborators between 2007 and 2011 from 75 sampling locations across Europe, two from Anatolia, five from North Africa, three from North America and one from New Zealand (Fig. 1 and Table S1). Adult insects were captured using a sweep net suitable for low-growing vegetation and an entomological aspirator. In some cases, larval stages were collected by hand. Specimens were preserved in absolute ethanol or dried in silica gel and stored at room temperature.

Bottom Line: Unexpected patterns of recent gene-flow events between Mediterranean peninsulas, a close relationship between Iberia and North Africa, as well as high levels of genetic diversity being maintained in northern Europe were found.The mitochondrial pattern does not exactly match to the nuclear pattern suggesting that the current biogeographic pattern of P. spumarius may be the result of both secondary admixture and incomplete lineage sorting.The hypothesis of recent colonization of North America from both western and northern Europe is corroborated by our data and probably resulted from accidental human translocations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Computational Biology and Population Genomics Group, Centro de Biologia Ambiental, Departamento de Biologia Animal/Platform for Enhancing Ecological Research & Sustainability, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.

ABSTRACT
Philaenus spumarius is a widespread insect species in the Holarctic region. Here, by focusing on the mtDNA gene COI but also using the COII and Cyt b genes and the nuclear gene EF-1α, we tried to explain how and when its current biogeographic pattern evolved by providing time estimates of the main demographic and evolutionary events and investigating its colonization patterns in and out of Eurasia. Evidence of recent divergence and expansion events at less than 0.5 Ma ago indicate that climate fluctuations in the Mid-Late Pleistocene were important in shaping the current phylogeographic pattern of the species. Data support a first split and differentiation of P. spumarius into two main mitochondrial lineages: the "western", in the Mediterranean region and the "eastern", in Anatolia/Caucasus. It also supports a following differentiation of the "western" lineage into two sub-lineages: the "western-Mediterranean", in Iberia and the "eastern-Mediterranean" in the Balkans. The recent pattern seems to result from postglacial range expansion from Iberia and Caucasus/Anatolia, thus not following one of the four common paradigms. Unexpected patterns of recent gene-flow events between Mediterranean peninsulas, a close relationship between Iberia and North Africa, as well as high levels of genetic diversity being maintained in northern Europe were found. The mitochondrial pattern does not exactly match to the nuclear pattern suggesting that the current biogeographic pattern of P. spumarius may be the result of both secondary admixture and incomplete lineage sorting. The hypothesis of recent colonization of North America from both western and northern Europe is corroborated by our data and probably resulted from accidental human translocations. A probable British origin for the populations of the Azores and New Zealand was revealed, however, for the Azores the distribution of populations in high altitude native forests is somewhat puzzling and may imply a natural colonization of the archipelago.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus