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A major locus for chloride accumulation on chromosome 5A in bread wheat.

Genc Y, Taylor J, Rongala J, Oldach K - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Chloride (Cl-) is an essential micronutrient for plant growth, but can be toxic at high concentrations resulting in reduced growth and yield.A major Cl- concentration QTL (5A; barc56/gwm186) was identified in three field environments, and accounted for 27-32% of the total genetic variance.Alignment between the 5A QTL interval and its corresponding physical genome regions in wheat and other grasses has enabled the search for candidate genes involved in Cl- transport, which is discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, University of Adelaide, Waite Campus, Glen Osmond, South Australia, Australia; South Australian Research and Development Institute, Plant Genomics Centre, Waite Campus, Glen Osmond, South Australia, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Chloride (Cl-) is an essential micronutrient for plant growth, but can be toxic at high concentrations resulting in reduced growth and yield. Although saline soils are generally dominated by both sodium (Na+) and Cl- ions, compared to Na+ toxicity, very little is known about physiological and genetic control mechanisms of tolerance to Cl- toxicity. In hydroponics and field studies, a bread wheat mapping population was tested to examine the relationships between physiological traits [Na+, potassium (K+) and Cl- concentration] involved in salinity tolerance (ST) and seedling growth or grain yield, and to elucidate the genetic control mechanism of plant Cl- accumulation using a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis approach. Plant Na+ or Cl- concentration were moderately correlated (genetically) with seedling biomass in hydroponics, but showed no correlations with grain yield in the field, indicating little value in selecting for ion concentration to improve ST. In accordance with phenotypic responses, QTL controlling Cl- accumulation differed entirely between hydroponics and field locations, and few were detected in two or more environments, demonstrating substantial QTL-by-environment interactions. The presence of several QTL for Cl- concentration indicated that uptake and accumulation was a polygenic trait. A major Cl- concentration QTL (5A; barc56/gwm186) was identified in three field environments, and accounted for 27-32% of the total genetic variance. Alignment between the 5A QTL interval and its corresponding physical genome regions in wheat and other grasses has enabled the search for candidate genes involved in Cl- transport, which is discussed.

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Inferred physical position of the Cl− concentration QTL on 5AL in Berkut/Krichauff identified at Roseworthy field location onto 5AL in wheat.
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pone-0098845-g002: Inferred physical position of the Cl− concentration QTL on 5AL in Berkut/Krichauff identified at Roseworthy field location onto 5AL in wheat.

Mentions: To investigate the presence of candidate genes such as CLCs, CCCs and other ion transporters within the QTL interval on chromosome 5A, we physically positioned the 5A Cl− concentration QTL in the wheat genome sequence. For this purpose, the gene-based sequences of RFLP markers, bcd21 and psr128 with close linkage to the QTL-flanking SSR markers gwm304 and barc141 (Figure 2) were used to find wheat genome sequences. As expected, both RFLP sequences had their best hits in bread wheat chromosome 5AL and allowed to retrieve matching contigs of 4.2 kb and 9.1 kb for bcd21 and psr128, respectively. As both RFLPs had originally been derived from ESTs, the corresponding wheat genome contigs (4.2 and 9.1 kb) identified gene hits in rice chromosome 9 (Os09g0321900 and Os09g0412200). These rice genes functioned as borders of the physical interval in the comparative analysis between rice, Brachypodium and wheat using the alignment in Genome Zipper v5 (Figure 2). In rice (MSU Release 7 at rice.plantbiology.msu.edu/cgi-bin/gbrowse/rice/#search), the syntenic interval contained 547 genes.


A major locus for chloride accumulation on chromosome 5A in bread wheat.

Genc Y, Taylor J, Rongala J, Oldach K - PLoS ONE (2014)

Inferred physical position of the Cl− concentration QTL on 5AL in Berkut/Krichauff identified at Roseworthy field location onto 5AL in wheat.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4043771&req=5

pone-0098845-g002: Inferred physical position of the Cl− concentration QTL on 5AL in Berkut/Krichauff identified at Roseworthy field location onto 5AL in wheat.
Mentions: To investigate the presence of candidate genes such as CLCs, CCCs and other ion transporters within the QTL interval on chromosome 5A, we physically positioned the 5A Cl− concentration QTL in the wheat genome sequence. For this purpose, the gene-based sequences of RFLP markers, bcd21 and psr128 with close linkage to the QTL-flanking SSR markers gwm304 and barc141 (Figure 2) were used to find wheat genome sequences. As expected, both RFLP sequences had their best hits in bread wheat chromosome 5AL and allowed to retrieve matching contigs of 4.2 kb and 9.1 kb for bcd21 and psr128, respectively. As both RFLPs had originally been derived from ESTs, the corresponding wheat genome contigs (4.2 and 9.1 kb) identified gene hits in rice chromosome 9 (Os09g0321900 and Os09g0412200). These rice genes functioned as borders of the physical interval in the comparative analysis between rice, Brachypodium and wheat using the alignment in Genome Zipper v5 (Figure 2). In rice (MSU Release 7 at rice.plantbiology.msu.edu/cgi-bin/gbrowse/rice/#search), the syntenic interval contained 547 genes.

Bottom Line: Chloride (Cl-) is an essential micronutrient for plant growth, but can be toxic at high concentrations resulting in reduced growth and yield.A major Cl- concentration QTL (5A; barc56/gwm186) was identified in three field environments, and accounted for 27-32% of the total genetic variance.Alignment between the 5A QTL interval and its corresponding physical genome regions in wheat and other grasses has enabled the search for candidate genes involved in Cl- transport, which is discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, University of Adelaide, Waite Campus, Glen Osmond, South Australia, Australia; South Australian Research and Development Institute, Plant Genomics Centre, Waite Campus, Glen Osmond, South Australia, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Chloride (Cl-) is an essential micronutrient for plant growth, but can be toxic at high concentrations resulting in reduced growth and yield. Although saline soils are generally dominated by both sodium (Na+) and Cl- ions, compared to Na+ toxicity, very little is known about physiological and genetic control mechanisms of tolerance to Cl- toxicity. In hydroponics and field studies, a bread wheat mapping population was tested to examine the relationships between physiological traits [Na+, potassium (K+) and Cl- concentration] involved in salinity tolerance (ST) and seedling growth or grain yield, and to elucidate the genetic control mechanism of plant Cl- accumulation using a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis approach. Plant Na+ or Cl- concentration were moderately correlated (genetically) with seedling biomass in hydroponics, but showed no correlations with grain yield in the field, indicating little value in selecting for ion concentration to improve ST. In accordance with phenotypic responses, QTL controlling Cl- accumulation differed entirely between hydroponics and field locations, and few were detected in two or more environments, demonstrating substantial QTL-by-environment interactions. The presence of several QTL for Cl- concentration indicated that uptake and accumulation was a polygenic trait. A major Cl- concentration QTL (5A; barc56/gwm186) was identified in three field environments, and accounted for 27-32% of the total genetic variance. Alignment between the 5A QTL interval and its corresponding physical genome regions in wheat and other grasses has enabled the search for candidate genes involved in Cl- transport, which is discussed.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus