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Genotypes, recombinant forms, and variants of norovirus GII.4 in Gipuzkoa (Basque Country, Spain), 2009-2012.

Arana A, Cilla G, Montes M, Gomariz M, Pérez-Trallero E - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Recombinant strains were confirmed by PCR of the ORF1/ORF2 junction region.Nine different genotypes of NoV genogroup II were detected; among these, intergenotype recombinant strains represented an important part, highlighting the role of recombination in the evolution of NoVs.Detection of new NoV strains, not only GII.4 strains, shortly after their first detection in other parts of the world shows that many NoV strains can spread rapidly.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Universitario Donostia-Instituto de Investigación Biodonostia, San Sebastián, Spain.

ABSTRACT

Background: Noroviruses (NoVs) are genetically diverse, with genogroup II-and within it-genotype 4 (GII.4) being the most prevalent cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. The aim of this study was to characterize genogroup II NoV causing acute gastroenteritis in the Basque Country (northern Spain) from 2009-2012.

Methods: The presence of NoV RNA was investigated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in stool specimens from children younger than 15 years old with community-acquired acute gastroenteritis, and from hospitalized adults or elderly residents of nursing homes with acute gastroenteritis. For genotyping, the open reading frames ORF1 (encoding the polymerase) and ORF2 (encoding the major capsid protein) were partially amplified and sequenced. Recombinant strains were confirmed by PCR of the ORF1/ORF2 junction region.

Results: NoV was detected in 16.0% (453/2826) of acute gastroenteritis episodes in children younger than 2 years, 9.9% (139/1407) in children from 2 to 14 years, and 35.8% (122/341) in adults. Of 317 NoVs characterized, 313 were genogroup II and four were genogroup I. The GII.4 variants Den Haag-2006b and New Orleans-2009 predominated in 2009 and 2010-2011, respectively. In 2012, the New Orleans-2009 variant was partially replaced by the Sydney-2012 variant (GII.Pe/GII.4) and New Orleans-2009/Sydney-2012 recombinant strains. The predominant capsid genotype in all age groups was GII.4, which was the only genotype detected in outbreaks. The second most frequent genotype was GII.3 (including the recently described recombination GII.P16/GII.3), which was detected almost exclusively in children.

Conclusion: Nine different genotypes of NoV genogroup II were detected; among these, intergenotype recombinant strains represented an important part, highlighting the role of recombination in the evolution of NoVs. Detection of new NoV strains, not only GII.4 strains, shortly after their first detection in other parts of the world shows that many NoV strains can spread rapidly.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Seasonal circulation of norovirus in children.Monthly distribution of community-acquired acute gastroenteritis episodes due to norovirus in children younger than 15 years diagnosed in Gipuzkoa (Basque Country, Spain), 2009–2012.
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pone-0098875-g002: Seasonal circulation of norovirus in children.Monthly distribution of community-acquired acute gastroenteritis episodes due to norovirus in children younger than 15 years diagnosed in Gipuzkoa (Basque Country, Spain), 2009–2012.

Mentions: NoV was detected in all the months of the study except June 2011, and there were no cases among persons younger than 15 years in July 2010 and April 2012 (Figure 2). Overall, the highest number of cases was observed in fall and winter. The temporal distribution of GII.4 variants showed that Den Haag-2006b strains predominated in 2009 and were replaced by New Orleans-2009 strains in 2010; these strains also predominated in 2011 and the first six months of 2012. After February 2012, strains of the new Sydney-2012 variant (GII.Pe/GII.4) were detected and were the main circulating strains in the second half of that year (Figure 3). After July 2012, five strains were detected showing recombination between the Sydney-2012 and New Orleans-2009 variants (New Orleans-2009/Sydney-2012, GII.P4/GII.4), representing 13.9% of the GII.4 strains detected in that semester (July-December 2012). Strains showing the capsid gene GII.3, represented the second most frequent genotype after GII.4, and circulated mainly in 2009 and 2012 (Table 1).


Genotypes, recombinant forms, and variants of norovirus GII.4 in Gipuzkoa (Basque Country, Spain), 2009-2012.

Arana A, Cilla G, Montes M, Gomariz M, Pérez-Trallero E - PLoS ONE (2014)

Seasonal circulation of norovirus in children.Monthly distribution of community-acquired acute gastroenteritis episodes due to norovirus in children younger than 15 years diagnosed in Gipuzkoa (Basque Country, Spain), 2009–2012.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4043750&req=5

pone-0098875-g002: Seasonal circulation of norovirus in children.Monthly distribution of community-acquired acute gastroenteritis episodes due to norovirus in children younger than 15 years diagnosed in Gipuzkoa (Basque Country, Spain), 2009–2012.
Mentions: NoV was detected in all the months of the study except June 2011, and there were no cases among persons younger than 15 years in July 2010 and April 2012 (Figure 2). Overall, the highest number of cases was observed in fall and winter. The temporal distribution of GII.4 variants showed that Den Haag-2006b strains predominated in 2009 and were replaced by New Orleans-2009 strains in 2010; these strains also predominated in 2011 and the first six months of 2012. After February 2012, strains of the new Sydney-2012 variant (GII.Pe/GII.4) were detected and were the main circulating strains in the second half of that year (Figure 3). After July 2012, five strains were detected showing recombination between the Sydney-2012 and New Orleans-2009 variants (New Orleans-2009/Sydney-2012, GII.P4/GII.4), representing 13.9% of the GII.4 strains detected in that semester (July-December 2012). Strains showing the capsid gene GII.3, represented the second most frequent genotype after GII.4, and circulated mainly in 2009 and 2012 (Table 1).

Bottom Line: Recombinant strains were confirmed by PCR of the ORF1/ORF2 junction region.Nine different genotypes of NoV genogroup II were detected; among these, intergenotype recombinant strains represented an important part, highlighting the role of recombination in the evolution of NoVs.Detection of new NoV strains, not only GII.4 strains, shortly after their first detection in other parts of the world shows that many NoV strains can spread rapidly.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Universitario Donostia-Instituto de Investigación Biodonostia, San Sebastián, Spain.

ABSTRACT

Background: Noroviruses (NoVs) are genetically diverse, with genogroup II-and within it-genotype 4 (GII.4) being the most prevalent cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. The aim of this study was to characterize genogroup II NoV causing acute gastroenteritis in the Basque Country (northern Spain) from 2009-2012.

Methods: The presence of NoV RNA was investigated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in stool specimens from children younger than 15 years old with community-acquired acute gastroenteritis, and from hospitalized adults or elderly residents of nursing homes with acute gastroenteritis. For genotyping, the open reading frames ORF1 (encoding the polymerase) and ORF2 (encoding the major capsid protein) were partially amplified and sequenced. Recombinant strains were confirmed by PCR of the ORF1/ORF2 junction region.

Results: NoV was detected in 16.0% (453/2826) of acute gastroenteritis episodes in children younger than 2 years, 9.9% (139/1407) in children from 2 to 14 years, and 35.8% (122/341) in adults. Of 317 NoVs characterized, 313 were genogroup II and four were genogroup I. The GII.4 variants Den Haag-2006b and New Orleans-2009 predominated in 2009 and 2010-2011, respectively. In 2012, the New Orleans-2009 variant was partially replaced by the Sydney-2012 variant (GII.Pe/GII.4) and New Orleans-2009/Sydney-2012 recombinant strains. The predominant capsid genotype in all age groups was GII.4, which was the only genotype detected in outbreaks. The second most frequent genotype was GII.3 (including the recently described recombination GII.P16/GII.3), which was detected almost exclusively in children.

Conclusion: Nine different genotypes of NoV genogroup II were detected; among these, intergenotype recombinant strains represented an important part, highlighting the role of recombination in the evolution of NoVs. Detection of new NoV strains, not only GII.4 strains, shortly after their first detection in other parts of the world shows that many NoV strains can spread rapidly.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus