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Effect of additive particles on mechanical, thermal, and cell functioning properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) cement.

Khandaker M, Vaughan MB, Morris TL, White JJ, Meng Z - Int J Nanomedicine (2014)

Bottom Line: We found that flexural strength and fracture toughness were significantly greater for PMMA specimens that incorporated silica than for the other specimens.All additives prolonged the time taken to reach maximum curing temperature and significantly improved cell adhesion of the PMMA samples.The results of this study could be useful for improving the union of implant-PMMA or bone-PMMA interfaces by incorporating nanoparticles into PMMA cement for orthopedic and orthodontic applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Engineering and Physics, University of Central Oklahoma, Edmond, OK, USA.

ABSTRACT
The most common bone cement material used clinically today for orthopedic surgery is poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Conventional PMMA bone cement has several mechanical, thermal, and biological disadvantages. To overcome these problems, researchers have investigated combinations of PMMA bone cement and several bioactive particles (micrometers to nanometers in size), such as magnesium oxide, hydroxyapatite, chitosan, barium sulfate, and silica. A study comparing the effect of these individual additives on the mechanical, thermal, and cell functional properties of PMMA would be important to enable selection of suitable additives and design improved PMMA cement for orthopedic applications. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the effect of inclusion of magnesium oxide, hydroxyapatite, chitosan, barium sulfate, and silica additives in PMMA on the mechanical, thermal, and cell functional performance of PMMA. American Society for Testing and Materials standard three-point bend flexural and fracture tests were conducted to determine the flexural strength, flexural modulus, and fracture toughness of the different PMMA samples. A custom-made temperature measurement system was used to determine maximum curing temperature and the time needed for each PMMA sample to reach its maximum curing temperature. Osteoblast adhesion and proliferation experiments were performed to determine cell viability using the different PMMA cements. We found that flexural strength and fracture toughness were significantly greater for PMMA specimens that incorporated silica than for the other specimens. All additives prolonged the time taken to reach maximum curing temperature and significantly improved cell adhesion of the PMMA samples. The results of this study could be useful for improving the union of implant-PMMA or bone-PMMA interfaces by incorporating nanoparticles into PMMA cement for orthopedic and orthodontic applications.

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Bar diagram of the variation in cell density with PMMA samples due to variation in additives to PMMA.Notes: Data are presented as the mean ± standard error of the mean; n=8. *P<0.05 versus PMMA.Abbreviations: CS, chitosan; HAp, hydroxyapatite; MgO, magnesium oxide; PMMA, poly(methyl methacrylate); BaSO4, barium sulfate; SiO2, silica.
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f7-ijn-9-2699: Bar diagram of the variation in cell density with PMMA samples due to variation in additives to PMMA.Notes: Data are presented as the mean ± standard error of the mean; n=8. *P<0.05 versus PMMA.Abbreviations: CS, chitosan; HAp, hydroxyapatite; MgO, magnesium oxide; PMMA, poly(methyl methacrylate); BaSO4, barium sulfate; SiO2, silica.

Mentions: Figure 7A shows the mean osteoblast density for the different PMMA sample types. The bar diagram in Figure 7B demonstrates how the AP affected cell viability in the PMMA samples. The cell density of the PMMA specimens when additives were included was significantly greater than the cell density of PMMA alone, suggesting that MgO, HAp, CS, BaSO4, and SiO2 have a positive influence on cell activity in PMMA.


Effect of additive particles on mechanical, thermal, and cell functioning properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) cement.

Khandaker M, Vaughan MB, Morris TL, White JJ, Meng Z - Int J Nanomedicine (2014)

Bar diagram of the variation in cell density with PMMA samples due to variation in additives to PMMA.Notes: Data are presented as the mean ± standard error of the mean; n=8. *P<0.05 versus PMMA.Abbreviations: CS, chitosan; HAp, hydroxyapatite; MgO, magnesium oxide; PMMA, poly(methyl methacrylate); BaSO4, barium sulfate; SiO2, silica.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4043713&req=5

f7-ijn-9-2699: Bar diagram of the variation in cell density with PMMA samples due to variation in additives to PMMA.Notes: Data are presented as the mean ± standard error of the mean; n=8. *P<0.05 versus PMMA.Abbreviations: CS, chitosan; HAp, hydroxyapatite; MgO, magnesium oxide; PMMA, poly(methyl methacrylate); BaSO4, barium sulfate; SiO2, silica.
Mentions: Figure 7A shows the mean osteoblast density for the different PMMA sample types. The bar diagram in Figure 7B demonstrates how the AP affected cell viability in the PMMA samples. The cell density of the PMMA specimens when additives were included was significantly greater than the cell density of PMMA alone, suggesting that MgO, HAp, CS, BaSO4, and SiO2 have a positive influence on cell activity in PMMA.

Bottom Line: We found that flexural strength and fracture toughness were significantly greater for PMMA specimens that incorporated silica than for the other specimens.All additives prolonged the time taken to reach maximum curing temperature and significantly improved cell adhesion of the PMMA samples.The results of this study could be useful for improving the union of implant-PMMA or bone-PMMA interfaces by incorporating nanoparticles into PMMA cement for orthopedic and orthodontic applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Engineering and Physics, University of Central Oklahoma, Edmond, OK, USA.

ABSTRACT
The most common bone cement material used clinically today for orthopedic surgery is poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Conventional PMMA bone cement has several mechanical, thermal, and biological disadvantages. To overcome these problems, researchers have investigated combinations of PMMA bone cement and several bioactive particles (micrometers to nanometers in size), such as magnesium oxide, hydroxyapatite, chitosan, barium sulfate, and silica. A study comparing the effect of these individual additives on the mechanical, thermal, and cell functional properties of PMMA would be important to enable selection of suitable additives and design improved PMMA cement for orthopedic applications. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the effect of inclusion of magnesium oxide, hydroxyapatite, chitosan, barium sulfate, and silica additives in PMMA on the mechanical, thermal, and cell functional performance of PMMA. American Society for Testing and Materials standard three-point bend flexural and fracture tests were conducted to determine the flexural strength, flexural modulus, and fracture toughness of the different PMMA samples. A custom-made temperature measurement system was used to determine maximum curing temperature and the time needed for each PMMA sample to reach its maximum curing temperature. Osteoblast adhesion and proliferation experiments were performed to determine cell viability using the different PMMA cements. We found that flexural strength and fracture toughness were significantly greater for PMMA specimens that incorporated silica than for the other specimens. All additives prolonged the time taken to reach maximum curing temperature and significantly improved cell adhesion of the PMMA samples. The results of this study could be useful for improving the union of implant-PMMA or bone-PMMA interfaces by incorporating nanoparticles into PMMA cement for orthopedic and orthodontic applications.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus