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Effect of additive particles on mechanical, thermal, and cell functioning properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) cement.

Khandaker M, Vaughan MB, Morris TL, White JJ, Meng Z - Int J Nanomedicine (2014)

Bottom Line: We found that flexural strength and fracture toughness were significantly greater for PMMA specimens that incorporated silica than for the other specimens.All additives prolonged the time taken to reach maximum curing temperature and significantly improved cell adhesion of the PMMA samples.The results of this study could be useful for improving the union of implant-PMMA or bone-PMMA interfaces by incorporating nanoparticles into PMMA cement for orthopedic and orthodontic applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Engineering and Physics, University of Central Oklahoma, Edmond, OK, USA.

ABSTRACT
The most common bone cement material used clinically today for orthopedic surgery is poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Conventional PMMA bone cement has several mechanical, thermal, and biological disadvantages. To overcome these problems, researchers have investigated combinations of PMMA bone cement and several bioactive particles (micrometers to nanometers in size), such as magnesium oxide, hydroxyapatite, chitosan, barium sulfate, and silica. A study comparing the effect of these individual additives on the mechanical, thermal, and cell functional properties of PMMA would be important to enable selection of suitable additives and design improved PMMA cement for orthopedic applications. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the effect of inclusion of magnesium oxide, hydroxyapatite, chitosan, barium sulfate, and silica additives in PMMA on the mechanical, thermal, and cell functional performance of PMMA. American Society for Testing and Materials standard three-point bend flexural and fracture tests were conducted to determine the flexural strength, flexural modulus, and fracture toughness of the different PMMA samples. A custom-made temperature measurement system was used to determine maximum curing temperature and the time needed for each PMMA sample to reach its maximum curing temperature. Osteoblast adhesion and proliferation experiments were performed to determine cell viability using the different PMMA cements. We found that flexural strength and fracture toughness were significantly greater for PMMA specimens that incorporated silica than for the other specimens. All additives prolonged the time taken to reach maximum curing temperature and significantly improved cell adhesion of the PMMA samples. The results of this study could be useful for improving the union of implant-PMMA or bone-PMMA interfaces by incorporating nanoparticles into PMMA cement for orthopedic and orthodontic applications.

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Time versus temperature graphs of different PMMA sample specimens.Abbreviations: CS, chitosan; HAp, hydroxyapatite; MgO, magnesium oxide; PMMA, poly(methyl methacrylate); BaSO4, barium sulfate; SiO2, silica.
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f6-ijn-9-2699: Time versus temperature graphs of different PMMA sample specimens.Abbreviations: CS, chitosan; HAp, hydroxyapatite; MgO, magnesium oxide; PMMA, poly(methyl methacrylate); BaSO4, barium sulfate; SiO2, silica.

Mentions: Figure 6 shows the variation in curing temperature with respect to time for the different PMMA samples. All samples showed the similar characteristic of temperature increase to a peak temperature (Tc) and a temperature decrease after Tc. It is also evident from the graph that the AP influenced the time taken to reach Tc, which was lowest for the PMMA samples without additives when compared with PMMA samples including additives. The PMMA cement incorporating SiO2 took the longest to reach maximum temperature. Given that thermal stress is proportional to rise in temperature, the thermal stress created in the PMMA samples must be higher than in the PMMA-AP samples. Table 3 shows the curing temperature of the different samples at intervals of 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, and 15 minutes. Table 3 also shows the maximum Tc and time taken to reach Tc. MgO-containing, CS-containing, and BaSO4-containing PMMA cements showed a lower maximum temperature than PMMA samples, whereas the HAp-containing and SiO2-containing PMMA cements showed higher maximum temperatures than the PMMA samples.


Effect of additive particles on mechanical, thermal, and cell functioning properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) cement.

Khandaker M, Vaughan MB, Morris TL, White JJ, Meng Z - Int J Nanomedicine (2014)

Time versus temperature graphs of different PMMA sample specimens.Abbreviations: CS, chitosan; HAp, hydroxyapatite; MgO, magnesium oxide; PMMA, poly(methyl methacrylate); BaSO4, barium sulfate; SiO2, silica.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4043713&req=5

f6-ijn-9-2699: Time versus temperature graphs of different PMMA sample specimens.Abbreviations: CS, chitosan; HAp, hydroxyapatite; MgO, magnesium oxide; PMMA, poly(methyl methacrylate); BaSO4, barium sulfate; SiO2, silica.
Mentions: Figure 6 shows the variation in curing temperature with respect to time for the different PMMA samples. All samples showed the similar characteristic of temperature increase to a peak temperature (Tc) and a temperature decrease after Tc. It is also evident from the graph that the AP influenced the time taken to reach Tc, which was lowest for the PMMA samples without additives when compared with PMMA samples including additives. The PMMA cement incorporating SiO2 took the longest to reach maximum temperature. Given that thermal stress is proportional to rise in temperature, the thermal stress created in the PMMA samples must be higher than in the PMMA-AP samples. Table 3 shows the curing temperature of the different samples at intervals of 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, and 15 minutes. Table 3 also shows the maximum Tc and time taken to reach Tc. MgO-containing, CS-containing, and BaSO4-containing PMMA cements showed a lower maximum temperature than PMMA samples, whereas the HAp-containing and SiO2-containing PMMA cements showed higher maximum temperatures than the PMMA samples.

Bottom Line: We found that flexural strength and fracture toughness were significantly greater for PMMA specimens that incorporated silica than for the other specimens.All additives prolonged the time taken to reach maximum curing temperature and significantly improved cell adhesion of the PMMA samples.The results of this study could be useful for improving the union of implant-PMMA or bone-PMMA interfaces by incorporating nanoparticles into PMMA cement for orthopedic and orthodontic applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Engineering and Physics, University of Central Oklahoma, Edmond, OK, USA.

ABSTRACT
The most common bone cement material used clinically today for orthopedic surgery is poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Conventional PMMA bone cement has several mechanical, thermal, and biological disadvantages. To overcome these problems, researchers have investigated combinations of PMMA bone cement and several bioactive particles (micrometers to nanometers in size), such as magnesium oxide, hydroxyapatite, chitosan, barium sulfate, and silica. A study comparing the effect of these individual additives on the mechanical, thermal, and cell functional properties of PMMA would be important to enable selection of suitable additives and design improved PMMA cement for orthopedic applications. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the effect of inclusion of magnesium oxide, hydroxyapatite, chitosan, barium sulfate, and silica additives in PMMA on the mechanical, thermal, and cell functional performance of PMMA. American Society for Testing and Materials standard three-point bend flexural and fracture tests were conducted to determine the flexural strength, flexural modulus, and fracture toughness of the different PMMA samples. A custom-made temperature measurement system was used to determine maximum curing temperature and the time needed for each PMMA sample to reach its maximum curing temperature. Osteoblast adhesion and proliferation experiments were performed to determine cell viability using the different PMMA cements. We found that flexural strength and fracture toughness were significantly greater for PMMA specimens that incorporated silica than for the other specimens. All additives prolonged the time taken to reach maximum curing temperature and significantly improved cell adhesion of the PMMA samples. The results of this study could be useful for improving the union of implant-PMMA or bone-PMMA interfaces by incorporating nanoparticles into PMMA cement for orthopedic and orthodontic applications.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus