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Effect of additive particles on mechanical, thermal, and cell functioning properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) cement.

Khandaker M, Vaughan MB, Morris TL, White JJ, Meng Z - Int J Nanomedicine (2014)

Bottom Line: We found that flexural strength and fracture toughness were significantly greater for PMMA specimens that incorporated silica than for the other specimens.All additives prolonged the time taken to reach maximum curing temperature and significantly improved cell adhesion of the PMMA samples.The results of this study could be useful for improving the union of implant-PMMA or bone-PMMA interfaces by incorporating nanoparticles into PMMA cement for orthopedic and orthodontic applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Engineering and Physics, University of Central Oklahoma, Edmond, OK, USA.

ABSTRACT
The most common bone cement material used clinically today for orthopedic surgery is poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Conventional PMMA bone cement has several mechanical, thermal, and biological disadvantages. To overcome these problems, researchers have investigated combinations of PMMA bone cement and several bioactive particles (micrometers to nanometers in size), such as magnesium oxide, hydroxyapatite, chitosan, barium sulfate, and silica. A study comparing the effect of these individual additives on the mechanical, thermal, and cell functional properties of PMMA would be important to enable selection of suitable additives and design improved PMMA cement for orthopedic applications. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the effect of inclusion of magnesium oxide, hydroxyapatite, chitosan, barium sulfate, and silica additives in PMMA on the mechanical, thermal, and cell functional performance of PMMA. American Society for Testing and Materials standard three-point bend flexural and fracture tests were conducted to determine the flexural strength, flexural modulus, and fracture toughness of the different PMMA samples. A custom-made temperature measurement system was used to determine maximum curing temperature and the time needed for each PMMA sample to reach its maximum curing temperature. Osteoblast adhesion and proliferation experiments were performed to determine cell viability using the different PMMA cements. We found that flexural strength and fracture toughness were significantly greater for PMMA specimens that incorporated silica than for the other specimens. All additives prolonged the time taken to reach maximum curing temperature and significantly improved cell adhesion of the PMMA samples. The results of this study could be useful for improving the union of implant-PMMA or bone-PMMA interfaces by incorporating nanoparticles into PMMA cement for orthopedic and orthodontic applications.

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(A) Stress versus strain plots of PMMA samples tested during this study. (B) Bar diagram of the variation in flexural strength of PMMA samples due to variation of additives to PMMA.Notes: Data are presented as the mean ± standard error of mean; n=3 for PMMA-CS; n=4 for the rest of the samples. *P<0.05 (compared with PMMA).Abbreviations: CS, chitosan; HAp, hydroxyapatite; MgO, magnesium oxide; PMMA, poly(methyl methacrylate); BaSO4, barium sulfate; SiO2, silica.
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f4-ijn-9-2699: (A) Stress versus strain plots of PMMA samples tested during this study. (B) Bar diagram of the variation in flexural strength of PMMA samples due to variation of additives to PMMA.Notes: Data are presented as the mean ± standard error of mean; n=3 for PMMA-CS; n=4 for the rest of the samples. *P<0.05 (compared with PMMA).Abbreviations: CS, chitosan; HAp, hydroxyapatite; MgO, magnesium oxide; PMMA, poly(methyl methacrylate); BaSO4, barium sulfate; SiO2, silica.

Mentions: The stress-strain behavior of PMMA was influenced by incorporation of AP (Figure 4A). The flexural strength (σf) and flexural modulus (E) under bending loading conditions was calculated from the stress-strain data for all the bone cements (Table 2). These data, along with the bar diagram (Figure 4B), were used to identify significant differences in flexural strength when comparing the control cement (PMMA) with the cements containing AP. Figure 4B shows that: the mean σf of the SiO2 specimens was significantly greater than the mean σf of all other specimens; the mean σf of the PMMA-BaSO4 specimens was significantly greater than the mean σf of the PMMA-MgO specimens; and no significant difference existed between the mean σf of the PMMA control, PMMA-CS, and PMMA-HAp. Table 2 shows the differences of the values of E of additives included in the PMMA samples with respect to the values of E of PMMA. The results show that: the mean E of the SiO2 specimens was significantly greater than the mean E of all other specimens; the mean E of the PMMA and PMMA-BaSO4 specimens was significantly greater than the mean modulus of the PMMA-MgO specimens; and no significant difference existed between the mean E of PMMA-CS and PMMA-HAp. Figure 5 compares the fracture toughness of various composite cements with respect to the fracture toughness of PMMA. Results show that incorporation of HAp, CS, and SiO2 AP with PMMA significantly influences the fracture toughness of the PMMA. Furthermore, Table 2 shows that the mean values of the fracture toughness of all AP incorporated PMMA samples were higher than the mean values of the fracture toughness of PMMA samples.


Effect of additive particles on mechanical, thermal, and cell functioning properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) cement.

Khandaker M, Vaughan MB, Morris TL, White JJ, Meng Z - Int J Nanomedicine (2014)

(A) Stress versus strain plots of PMMA samples tested during this study. (B) Bar diagram of the variation in flexural strength of PMMA samples due to variation of additives to PMMA.Notes: Data are presented as the mean ± standard error of mean; n=3 for PMMA-CS; n=4 for the rest of the samples. *P<0.05 (compared with PMMA).Abbreviations: CS, chitosan; HAp, hydroxyapatite; MgO, magnesium oxide; PMMA, poly(methyl methacrylate); BaSO4, barium sulfate; SiO2, silica.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4043713&req=5

f4-ijn-9-2699: (A) Stress versus strain plots of PMMA samples tested during this study. (B) Bar diagram of the variation in flexural strength of PMMA samples due to variation of additives to PMMA.Notes: Data are presented as the mean ± standard error of mean; n=3 for PMMA-CS; n=4 for the rest of the samples. *P<0.05 (compared with PMMA).Abbreviations: CS, chitosan; HAp, hydroxyapatite; MgO, magnesium oxide; PMMA, poly(methyl methacrylate); BaSO4, barium sulfate; SiO2, silica.
Mentions: The stress-strain behavior of PMMA was influenced by incorporation of AP (Figure 4A). The flexural strength (σf) and flexural modulus (E) under bending loading conditions was calculated from the stress-strain data for all the bone cements (Table 2). These data, along with the bar diagram (Figure 4B), were used to identify significant differences in flexural strength when comparing the control cement (PMMA) with the cements containing AP. Figure 4B shows that: the mean σf of the SiO2 specimens was significantly greater than the mean σf of all other specimens; the mean σf of the PMMA-BaSO4 specimens was significantly greater than the mean σf of the PMMA-MgO specimens; and no significant difference existed between the mean σf of the PMMA control, PMMA-CS, and PMMA-HAp. Table 2 shows the differences of the values of E of additives included in the PMMA samples with respect to the values of E of PMMA. The results show that: the mean E of the SiO2 specimens was significantly greater than the mean E of all other specimens; the mean E of the PMMA and PMMA-BaSO4 specimens was significantly greater than the mean modulus of the PMMA-MgO specimens; and no significant difference existed between the mean E of PMMA-CS and PMMA-HAp. Figure 5 compares the fracture toughness of various composite cements with respect to the fracture toughness of PMMA. Results show that incorporation of HAp, CS, and SiO2 AP with PMMA significantly influences the fracture toughness of the PMMA. Furthermore, Table 2 shows that the mean values of the fracture toughness of all AP incorporated PMMA samples were higher than the mean values of the fracture toughness of PMMA samples.

Bottom Line: We found that flexural strength and fracture toughness were significantly greater for PMMA specimens that incorporated silica than for the other specimens.All additives prolonged the time taken to reach maximum curing temperature and significantly improved cell adhesion of the PMMA samples.The results of this study could be useful for improving the union of implant-PMMA or bone-PMMA interfaces by incorporating nanoparticles into PMMA cement for orthopedic and orthodontic applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Engineering and Physics, University of Central Oklahoma, Edmond, OK, USA.

ABSTRACT
The most common bone cement material used clinically today for orthopedic surgery is poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Conventional PMMA bone cement has several mechanical, thermal, and biological disadvantages. To overcome these problems, researchers have investigated combinations of PMMA bone cement and several bioactive particles (micrometers to nanometers in size), such as magnesium oxide, hydroxyapatite, chitosan, barium sulfate, and silica. A study comparing the effect of these individual additives on the mechanical, thermal, and cell functional properties of PMMA would be important to enable selection of suitable additives and design improved PMMA cement for orthopedic applications. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the effect of inclusion of magnesium oxide, hydroxyapatite, chitosan, barium sulfate, and silica additives in PMMA on the mechanical, thermal, and cell functional performance of PMMA. American Society for Testing and Materials standard three-point bend flexural and fracture tests were conducted to determine the flexural strength, flexural modulus, and fracture toughness of the different PMMA samples. A custom-made temperature measurement system was used to determine maximum curing temperature and the time needed for each PMMA sample to reach its maximum curing temperature. Osteoblast adhesion and proliferation experiments were performed to determine cell viability using the different PMMA cements. We found that flexural strength and fracture toughness were significantly greater for PMMA specimens that incorporated silica than for the other specimens. All additives prolonged the time taken to reach maximum curing temperature and significantly improved cell adhesion of the PMMA samples. The results of this study could be useful for improving the union of implant-PMMA or bone-PMMA interfaces by incorporating nanoparticles into PMMA cement for orthopedic and orthodontic applications.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus