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Effect of additive particles on mechanical, thermal, and cell functioning properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) cement.

Khandaker M, Vaughan MB, Morris TL, White JJ, Meng Z - Int J Nanomedicine (2014)

Bottom Line: We found that flexural strength and fracture toughness were significantly greater for PMMA specimens that incorporated silica than for the other specimens.All additives prolonged the time taken to reach maximum curing temperature and significantly improved cell adhesion of the PMMA samples.The results of this study could be useful for improving the union of implant-PMMA or bone-PMMA interfaces by incorporating nanoparticles into PMMA cement for orthopedic and orthodontic applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Engineering and Physics, University of Central Oklahoma, Edmond, OK, USA.

ABSTRACT
The most common bone cement material used clinically today for orthopedic surgery is poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Conventional PMMA bone cement has several mechanical, thermal, and biological disadvantages. To overcome these problems, researchers have investigated combinations of PMMA bone cement and several bioactive particles (micrometers to nanometers in size), such as magnesium oxide, hydroxyapatite, chitosan, barium sulfate, and silica. A study comparing the effect of these individual additives on the mechanical, thermal, and cell functional properties of PMMA would be important to enable selection of suitable additives and design improved PMMA cement for orthopedic applications. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the effect of inclusion of magnesium oxide, hydroxyapatite, chitosan, barium sulfate, and silica additives in PMMA on the mechanical, thermal, and cell functional performance of PMMA. American Society for Testing and Materials standard three-point bend flexural and fracture tests were conducted to determine the flexural strength, flexural modulus, and fracture toughness of the different PMMA samples. A custom-made temperature measurement system was used to determine maximum curing temperature and the time needed for each PMMA sample to reach its maximum curing temperature. Osteoblast adhesion and proliferation experiments were performed to determine cell viability using the different PMMA cements. We found that flexural strength and fracture toughness were significantly greater for PMMA specimens that incorporated silica than for the other specimens. All additives prolonged the time taken to reach maximum curing temperature and significantly improved cell adhesion of the PMMA samples. The results of this study could be useful for improving the union of implant-PMMA or bone-PMMA interfaces by incorporating nanoparticles into PMMA cement for orthopedic and orthodontic applications.

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Cell culture protocols for cell adhesion tests on PMMA, including (A) a DAPI-stained image showing osteocyte nuclei and (B) a custom-made well plate for culturing cells on PMMA cements.Abbreviations: DAPI, 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; PMMA, poly(methyl methacrylate).
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f3-ijn-9-2699: Cell culture protocols for cell adhesion tests on PMMA, including (A) a DAPI-stained image showing osteocyte nuclei and (B) a custom-made well plate for culturing cells on PMMA cements.Abbreviations: DAPI, 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; PMMA, poly(methyl methacrylate).

Mentions: Two groups of samples were prepared for cell adhesion and proliferation tests. An acrylic sheet (half an inch thick) was used to create a well for the cell culture (Figure 3). Holes (height 11 mm and diameter 9.525 mm) were milled using a computer numeric control machine. PMMA specimens were prepared by mixing 0.5 g of PMMA beads with 0.25 mL of methyl methacrylate. The PMMA-AP specimens were prepared by mixing 0.05 g of the selected additives with the PMMA beads and dissolving the mixture produced with 0.25 mL of methyl methacrylate. All PMMA samples, while still pliable, were divided into four parts using a knife and poured on the well. Each part of the samples was hand-pressed during curing by a flat-ended ⅜ inch highly polished round bar. All the wells were wrapped in plastic. Cell adhesion and proliferation test sample wells were kept in a bio-hood under ultraviolet light until cell culture.


Effect of additive particles on mechanical, thermal, and cell functioning properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) cement.

Khandaker M, Vaughan MB, Morris TL, White JJ, Meng Z - Int J Nanomedicine (2014)

Cell culture protocols for cell adhesion tests on PMMA, including (A) a DAPI-stained image showing osteocyte nuclei and (B) a custom-made well plate for culturing cells on PMMA cements.Abbreviations: DAPI, 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; PMMA, poly(methyl methacrylate).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4043713&req=5

f3-ijn-9-2699: Cell culture protocols for cell adhesion tests on PMMA, including (A) a DAPI-stained image showing osteocyte nuclei and (B) a custom-made well plate for culturing cells on PMMA cements.Abbreviations: DAPI, 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; PMMA, poly(methyl methacrylate).
Mentions: Two groups of samples were prepared for cell adhesion and proliferation tests. An acrylic sheet (half an inch thick) was used to create a well for the cell culture (Figure 3). Holes (height 11 mm and diameter 9.525 mm) were milled using a computer numeric control machine. PMMA specimens were prepared by mixing 0.5 g of PMMA beads with 0.25 mL of methyl methacrylate. The PMMA-AP specimens were prepared by mixing 0.05 g of the selected additives with the PMMA beads and dissolving the mixture produced with 0.25 mL of methyl methacrylate. All PMMA samples, while still pliable, were divided into four parts using a knife and poured on the well. Each part of the samples was hand-pressed during curing by a flat-ended ⅜ inch highly polished round bar. All the wells were wrapped in plastic. Cell adhesion and proliferation test sample wells were kept in a bio-hood under ultraviolet light until cell culture.

Bottom Line: We found that flexural strength and fracture toughness were significantly greater for PMMA specimens that incorporated silica than for the other specimens.All additives prolonged the time taken to reach maximum curing temperature and significantly improved cell adhesion of the PMMA samples.The results of this study could be useful for improving the union of implant-PMMA or bone-PMMA interfaces by incorporating nanoparticles into PMMA cement for orthopedic and orthodontic applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Engineering and Physics, University of Central Oklahoma, Edmond, OK, USA.

ABSTRACT
The most common bone cement material used clinically today for orthopedic surgery is poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Conventional PMMA bone cement has several mechanical, thermal, and biological disadvantages. To overcome these problems, researchers have investigated combinations of PMMA bone cement and several bioactive particles (micrometers to nanometers in size), such as magnesium oxide, hydroxyapatite, chitosan, barium sulfate, and silica. A study comparing the effect of these individual additives on the mechanical, thermal, and cell functional properties of PMMA would be important to enable selection of suitable additives and design improved PMMA cement for orthopedic applications. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the effect of inclusion of magnesium oxide, hydroxyapatite, chitosan, barium sulfate, and silica additives in PMMA on the mechanical, thermal, and cell functional performance of PMMA. American Society for Testing and Materials standard three-point bend flexural and fracture tests were conducted to determine the flexural strength, flexural modulus, and fracture toughness of the different PMMA samples. A custom-made temperature measurement system was used to determine maximum curing temperature and the time needed for each PMMA sample to reach its maximum curing temperature. Osteoblast adhesion and proliferation experiments were performed to determine cell viability using the different PMMA cements. We found that flexural strength and fracture toughness were significantly greater for PMMA specimens that incorporated silica than for the other specimens. All additives prolonged the time taken to reach maximum curing temperature and significantly improved cell adhesion of the PMMA samples. The results of this study could be useful for improving the union of implant-PMMA or bone-PMMA interfaces by incorporating nanoparticles into PMMA cement for orthopedic and orthodontic applications.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus