Limits...
Rapid efficient synthesis and characterization of silver, gold, and bimetallic nanoparticles from the medicinal plant Plumbago zeylanica and their application in biofilm control.

Salunke GR, Ghosh S, Santosh Kumar RJ, Khade S, Vashisth P, Kale T, Chopade S, Pruthi V, Kundu G, Bellare JR, Chopade BA - Int J Nanomedicine (2014)

Bottom Line: The synthesis of AgAuNPs, which completed within 90 minutes with 0.7 mM AgNO₃ and HAuCl₄, was found to be the fastest.Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed bioreduction, while EDS and XRD patterns confirmed purity and the crystalline nature of the NPs, respectively.This is the first report on rapid and efficient synthesis of AgNPs, AuNPs and AgAuNPs from P. zeylanica and their effect on quantitative inhibition and disruption of bacterial biofilms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, University of Pune, India.

ABSTRACT

Background: Nanoparticles (NPs) have gained significance in medical fields due to their high surface-area-to-volume ratio. In this study, we synthesized NPs from a medicinally important plant - Plumbago zeylanica.

Materials and methods: Aqueous root extract of P. zeylanica (PZRE) was analyzed for the presence of flavonoids, sugars, and organic acids using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), gas chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS), and biochemical methods. The silver NPs (AgNPs), gold NPs (AuNPs), and bimetallic NPs (AgAuNPs) were synthesized from root extract and characterized using ultraviolet-visible spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The effects of these NPs on Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli biofilms were studied using quantitative biofilm inhibition and disruption assays, as well as using fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy.

Results: PZRE showed the presence of phenolics, such as plumbagin, and flavonoids, in addition to citric acid, sucrose, glucose, fructose, and starch, using HPTLC, GC-TOF-MS, and quantitative analysis. Bioreduction of silver nitrate (AgNO₃) and chloroauric acid (HAuCl₄) were confirmed at absorbances of 440 nm (AgNPs), 570 nm (AuNPs), and 540 nm (AgAuNPs), respectively. The maximum rate of synthesis at 50°C was achieved with 5 mM AgNO₃ within 4.5 hours for AgNPs; and with 0.7 mM HAuCl4 within 5 hours for AuNPs. The synthesis of AgAuNPs, which completed within 90 minutes with 0.7 mM AgNO₃ and HAuCl₄, was found to be the fastest. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed bioreduction, while EDS and XRD patterns confirmed purity and the crystalline nature of the NPs, respectively. TEM micrographs and DLS showed about 60 nm monodispersed Ag nanospheres, 20-30 nm Au nanospheres adhering to form Au nanotriangles, and about 90 nm hexagonal blunt-ended AgAuNPs. These NPs also showed antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity against E. coli, A. baumannii, S. aureus, and a mixed culture of A. baumannii and S. aureus. AgNPs inhibited biofilm in the range of 96%-99% and AgAuNPs from 93% to 98% in single-culture biofilms. AuNPs also showed biofilm inhibition, with the highest of 98% in S. aureus. AgNPs also showed good biofilm disruption, with the highest of 88% in A. baumannii.

Conclusion: This is the first report on rapid and efficient synthesis of AgNPs, AuNPs and AgAuNPs from P. zeylanica and their effect on quantitative inhibition and disruption of bacterial biofilms.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Bioreduction of AgNPs and AgAuNPs from PZRE at varying reaction temperatures and concentrations of the salts as a function of time. (A) Time course of AgNPs synthesis with varying reaction temperatures; (B) time course of AgAuNPs synthesis against reaction temperature; (C) time course of AgNPs formation obtained at different AgNO3 concentrations; (D) time course of AgAuNPs formation obtained at 1:1 AgNO3 and HAuCl4.Abbreviations: HAuCl4, chloroauric acid; AgNO3, silver nitrate; PZRE, Plumbago zeylanica root extract; AgNPs, silver nanoparticles; AgAuNPs, bimetallic NPs.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4043712&req=5

f2-ijn-9-2635: Bioreduction of AgNPs and AgAuNPs from PZRE at varying reaction temperatures and concentrations of the salts as a function of time. (A) Time course of AgNPs synthesis with varying reaction temperatures; (B) time course of AgAuNPs synthesis against reaction temperature; (C) time course of AgNPs formation obtained at different AgNO3 concentrations; (D) time course of AgAuNPs formation obtained at 1:1 AgNO3 and HAuCl4.Abbreviations: HAuCl4, chloroauric acid; AgNO3, silver nitrate; PZRE, Plumbago zeylanica root extract; AgNPs, silver nanoparticles; AgAuNPs, bimetallic NPs.

Mentions: The effects of temperature on the rate of AgNPs and AgAuNPs synthesis showed a gradual increase in synthesis up to 50°C (Figure 2A and B). The study of the effect of salt concentration revealed an increase in the rate of AgNPs synthesis with an increase in concentration and maximum synthesis at 5 mM AgNO3 (Figure 2C). The rate of synthesis was highest in 0.7 mM and decreased further from 1 mM to 5 mM in AgAuNPs (Figure 2D). Similar results were observed in the case of AuNPs (Figure S2).


Rapid efficient synthesis and characterization of silver, gold, and bimetallic nanoparticles from the medicinal plant Plumbago zeylanica and their application in biofilm control.

Salunke GR, Ghosh S, Santosh Kumar RJ, Khade S, Vashisth P, Kale T, Chopade S, Pruthi V, Kundu G, Bellare JR, Chopade BA - Int J Nanomedicine (2014)

Bioreduction of AgNPs and AgAuNPs from PZRE at varying reaction temperatures and concentrations of the salts as a function of time. (A) Time course of AgNPs synthesis with varying reaction temperatures; (B) time course of AgAuNPs synthesis against reaction temperature; (C) time course of AgNPs formation obtained at different AgNO3 concentrations; (D) time course of AgAuNPs formation obtained at 1:1 AgNO3 and HAuCl4.Abbreviations: HAuCl4, chloroauric acid; AgNO3, silver nitrate; PZRE, Plumbago zeylanica root extract; AgNPs, silver nanoparticles; AgAuNPs, bimetallic NPs.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4043712&req=5

f2-ijn-9-2635: Bioreduction of AgNPs and AgAuNPs from PZRE at varying reaction temperatures and concentrations of the salts as a function of time. (A) Time course of AgNPs synthesis with varying reaction temperatures; (B) time course of AgAuNPs synthesis against reaction temperature; (C) time course of AgNPs formation obtained at different AgNO3 concentrations; (D) time course of AgAuNPs formation obtained at 1:1 AgNO3 and HAuCl4.Abbreviations: HAuCl4, chloroauric acid; AgNO3, silver nitrate; PZRE, Plumbago zeylanica root extract; AgNPs, silver nanoparticles; AgAuNPs, bimetallic NPs.
Mentions: The effects of temperature on the rate of AgNPs and AgAuNPs synthesis showed a gradual increase in synthesis up to 50°C (Figure 2A and B). The study of the effect of salt concentration revealed an increase in the rate of AgNPs synthesis with an increase in concentration and maximum synthesis at 5 mM AgNO3 (Figure 2C). The rate of synthesis was highest in 0.7 mM and decreased further from 1 mM to 5 mM in AgAuNPs (Figure 2D). Similar results were observed in the case of AuNPs (Figure S2).

Bottom Line: The synthesis of AgAuNPs, which completed within 90 minutes with 0.7 mM AgNO₃ and HAuCl₄, was found to be the fastest.Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed bioreduction, while EDS and XRD patterns confirmed purity and the crystalline nature of the NPs, respectively.This is the first report on rapid and efficient synthesis of AgNPs, AuNPs and AgAuNPs from P. zeylanica and their effect on quantitative inhibition and disruption of bacterial biofilms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, University of Pune, India.

ABSTRACT

Background: Nanoparticles (NPs) have gained significance in medical fields due to their high surface-area-to-volume ratio. In this study, we synthesized NPs from a medicinally important plant - Plumbago zeylanica.

Materials and methods: Aqueous root extract of P. zeylanica (PZRE) was analyzed for the presence of flavonoids, sugars, and organic acids using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), gas chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS), and biochemical methods. The silver NPs (AgNPs), gold NPs (AuNPs), and bimetallic NPs (AgAuNPs) were synthesized from root extract and characterized using ultraviolet-visible spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The effects of these NPs on Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli biofilms were studied using quantitative biofilm inhibition and disruption assays, as well as using fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy.

Results: PZRE showed the presence of phenolics, such as plumbagin, and flavonoids, in addition to citric acid, sucrose, glucose, fructose, and starch, using HPTLC, GC-TOF-MS, and quantitative analysis. Bioreduction of silver nitrate (AgNO₃) and chloroauric acid (HAuCl₄) were confirmed at absorbances of 440 nm (AgNPs), 570 nm (AuNPs), and 540 nm (AgAuNPs), respectively. The maximum rate of synthesis at 50°C was achieved with 5 mM AgNO₃ within 4.5 hours for AgNPs; and with 0.7 mM HAuCl4 within 5 hours for AuNPs. The synthesis of AgAuNPs, which completed within 90 minutes with 0.7 mM AgNO₃ and HAuCl₄, was found to be the fastest. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed bioreduction, while EDS and XRD patterns confirmed purity and the crystalline nature of the NPs, respectively. TEM micrographs and DLS showed about 60 nm monodispersed Ag nanospheres, 20-30 nm Au nanospheres adhering to form Au nanotriangles, and about 90 nm hexagonal blunt-ended AgAuNPs. These NPs also showed antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity against E. coli, A. baumannii, S. aureus, and a mixed culture of A. baumannii and S. aureus. AgNPs inhibited biofilm in the range of 96%-99% and AgAuNPs from 93% to 98% in single-culture biofilms. AuNPs also showed biofilm inhibition, with the highest of 98% in S. aureus. AgNPs also showed good biofilm disruption, with the highest of 88% in A. baumannii.

Conclusion: This is the first report on rapid and efficient synthesis of AgNPs, AuNPs and AgAuNPs from P. zeylanica and their effect on quantitative inhibition and disruption of bacterial biofilms.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus