Limits...
The dynamics of audience applause.

Mann RP, Faria J, Sumpter DJ, Krause J - J R Soc Interface (2013)

Bottom Line: Individuals' probability of starting clapping increased in proportion to the number of other audience members already 'infected' by this social contagion, regardless of their spatial proximity.The cessation of applause is similarly socially mediated, but is to a lesser degree controlled by the reluctance of individuals to clap too many times.We also found consistent differences between individuals in their willingness to start and stop clapping.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Mathematics, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75106, Sweden. rmann@math.uu.se

ABSTRACT
The study of social identity and crowd psychology looks at how and why individual people change their behaviour in response to others. Within a group, a new behaviour can emerge first in a few individuals before it spreads rapidly to all other members. A number of mathematical models have been hypothesized to describe these social contagion phenomena, but these models remain largely untested against empirical data. We used Bayesian model selection to test between various hypotheses about the spread of a simple social behaviour, applause after an academic presentation. Individuals' probability of starting clapping increased in proportion to the number of other audience members already 'infected' by this social contagion, regardless of their spatial proximity. The cessation of applause is similarly socially mediated, but is to a lesser degree controlled by the reluctance of individuals to clap too many times. We also found consistent differences between individuals in their willingness to start and stop clapping. The social contagion model arising from our analysis predicts that the time the audience spends clapping can vary considerably, even in the absence of any differences in the quality of the presentations they have heard.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Experimental results. The plot shows the median proportion of individuals in the audience who have started clapping (black line), stopped clapping (red line) and are currently clapping (green line), aggregated over the 12 experimental presentations. For the starting and stopping proportions, the shaded area represents the interquartile range, illustrating the variation across experiments.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4043176&req=5

RSIF20130466F1: Experimental results. The plot shows the median proportion of individuals in the audience who have started clapping (black line), stopped clapping (red line) and are currently clapping (green line), aggregated over the 12 experimental presentations. For the starting and stopping proportions, the shaded area represents the interquartile range, illustrating the variation across experiments.

Mentions: We filmed the response of groups of 13–20 university students to an oral presentation. Six different groups (consisting of a total of 107 students) listened to two presentations each (see §4 for details). A group's clapping can be ordered in terms of starting clapping (figure 1, black line) and stopping clapping (figure 1, red line). After the presentation was completed, the mean duration for the first person to begin clapping was 2.1 s (±s.e.: 0.62 s). The mean interval from the first person to start clapping, to the last person to start was 2.93 s (±s.e.: 0.33 s). The mean applause length (from the first person to start clapping to the last person to stop) was 6.1 s (±s.e.: 0.27 s). The mean duration for the first person to stop clapping was 5.56 s (±s.e.: 0.74 s), and the mean duration from the first person to stop clapping, to the last person to stop was 2.6 s (±s.e.: 0.3 s).Figure 1.


The dynamics of audience applause.

Mann RP, Faria J, Sumpter DJ, Krause J - J R Soc Interface (2013)

Experimental results. The plot shows the median proportion of individuals in the audience who have started clapping (black line), stopped clapping (red line) and are currently clapping (green line), aggregated over the 12 experimental presentations. For the starting and stopping proportions, the shaded area represents the interquartile range, illustrating the variation across experiments.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4043176&req=5

RSIF20130466F1: Experimental results. The plot shows the median proportion of individuals in the audience who have started clapping (black line), stopped clapping (red line) and are currently clapping (green line), aggregated over the 12 experimental presentations. For the starting and stopping proportions, the shaded area represents the interquartile range, illustrating the variation across experiments.
Mentions: We filmed the response of groups of 13–20 university students to an oral presentation. Six different groups (consisting of a total of 107 students) listened to two presentations each (see §4 for details). A group's clapping can be ordered in terms of starting clapping (figure 1, black line) and stopping clapping (figure 1, red line). After the presentation was completed, the mean duration for the first person to begin clapping was 2.1 s (±s.e.: 0.62 s). The mean interval from the first person to start clapping, to the last person to start was 2.93 s (±s.e.: 0.33 s). The mean applause length (from the first person to start clapping to the last person to stop) was 6.1 s (±s.e.: 0.27 s). The mean duration for the first person to stop clapping was 5.56 s (±s.e.: 0.74 s), and the mean duration from the first person to stop clapping, to the last person to stop was 2.6 s (±s.e.: 0.3 s).Figure 1.

Bottom Line: Individuals' probability of starting clapping increased in proportion to the number of other audience members already 'infected' by this social contagion, regardless of their spatial proximity.The cessation of applause is similarly socially mediated, but is to a lesser degree controlled by the reluctance of individuals to clap too many times.We also found consistent differences between individuals in their willingness to start and stop clapping.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Mathematics, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75106, Sweden. rmann@math.uu.se

ABSTRACT
The study of social identity and crowd psychology looks at how and why individual people change their behaviour in response to others. Within a group, a new behaviour can emerge first in a few individuals before it spreads rapidly to all other members. A number of mathematical models have been hypothesized to describe these social contagion phenomena, but these models remain largely untested against empirical data. We used Bayesian model selection to test between various hypotheses about the spread of a simple social behaviour, applause after an academic presentation. Individuals' probability of starting clapping increased in proportion to the number of other audience members already 'infected' by this social contagion, regardless of their spatial proximity. The cessation of applause is similarly socially mediated, but is to a lesser degree controlled by the reluctance of individuals to clap too many times. We also found consistent differences between individuals in their willingness to start and stop clapping. The social contagion model arising from our analysis predicts that the time the audience spends clapping can vary considerably, even in the absence of any differences in the quality of the presentations they have heard.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus