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How do animal territories form and change? Lessons from 20 years of mechanistic modelling.

Potts JR, Lewis MA - Proc. Biol. Sci. (2014)

Bottom Line: At the population level, animals often segregate into distinct territorial areas.We detail the two main strands to this research: partial differential equations and individual-based approaches, showing what each has offered to our understanding of territoriality and how they can be unified.We explain how they are related to other approaches to studying territories and home ranges, and point towards possible future directions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, Centre for Mathematical Biology, University of Alberta, , Edmonton, , Alberta, Canada , T6G 2G1, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, , Edmonton, , Alberta, Canada , T6G 2G1.

ABSTRACT
Territory formation is ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom. At the individual level, various behaviours attempt to exclude conspecifics from regions of space. At the population level, animals often segregate into distinct territorial areas. Consequently, it should be possible to derive territorial patterns from the underlying behavioural processes of animal movements and interactions. Such derivations are an important element in the development of an ecological theory that can predict the effects of changing conditions on territorial populations. Here, we review the approaches developed over the past 20 years or so, which go under the umbrella of 'mechanistic territorial models'. We detail the two main strands to this research: partial differential equations and individual-based approaches, showing what each has offered to our understanding of territoriality and how they can be unified. We explain how they are related to other approaches to studying territories and home ranges, and point towards possible future directions.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Fit to the process or the pattern? (a) gives a schematic ofthe modelling scheme for mechanistic models where we fit data to theterritorial pattern [15,19].(b) How this process differs when we fit the data to themovement and interaction processes [20]. (Online version in colour.)
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RSPB20140231F4: Fit to the process or the pattern? (a) gives a schematic ofthe modelling scheme for mechanistic models where we fit data to theterritorial pattern [15,19].(b) How this process differs when we fit the data to themovement and interaction processes [20]. (Online version in colour.)

Mentions: Fitting a model directly to the underlying movement and interaction processes, on theother hand, allows one to make use of all the location data available. Owing to advancesin global positioning satellite technology over recent years, fine-scaled animalmovement data are becoming increasingly common, making such model fitting possible. Oncesuch a model has been parametrized, it is possible to use either simulation ormathematical analysis to derive the resulting territorial patterns [20]. Because these patterns are notthemselves fitted to the positional data, as in previous approaches, this approach isfar more conservative in answering whether a model is sufficient to produce territorialpatterns (figure 4). FigureĀ 4.


How do animal territories form and change? Lessons from 20 years of mechanistic modelling.

Potts JR, Lewis MA - Proc. Biol. Sci. (2014)

Fit to the process or the pattern? (a) gives a schematic ofthe modelling scheme for mechanistic models where we fit data to theterritorial pattern [15,19].(b) How this process differs when we fit the data to themovement and interaction processes [20]. (Online version in colour.)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4043092&req=5

RSPB20140231F4: Fit to the process or the pattern? (a) gives a schematic ofthe modelling scheme for mechanistic models where we fit data to theterritorial pattern [15,19].(b) How this process differs when we fit the data to themovement and interaction processes [20]. (Online version in colour.)
Mentions: Fitting a model directly to the underlying movement and interaction processes, on theother hand, allows one to make use of all the location data available. Owing to advancesin global positioning satellite technology over recent years, fine-scaled animalmovement data are becoming increasingly common, making such model fitting possible. Oncesuch a model has been parametrized, it is possible to use either simulation ormathematical analysis to derive the resulting territorial patterns [20]. Because these patterns are notthemselves fitted to the positional data, as in previous approaches, this approach isfar more conservative in answering whether a model is sufficient to produce territorialpatterns (figure 4). FigureĀ 4.

Bottom Line: At the population level, animals often segregate into distinct territorial areas.We detail the two main strands to this research: partial differential equations and individual-based approaches, showing what each has offered to our understanding of territoriality and how they can be unified.We explain how they are related to other approaches to studying territories and home ranges, and point towards possible future directions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, Centre for Mathematical Biology, University of Alberta, , Edmonton, , Alberta, Canada , T6G 2G1, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, , Edmonton, , Alberta, Canada , T6G 2G1.

ABSTRACT
Territory formation is ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom. At the individual level, various behaviours attempt to exclude conspecifics from regions of space. At the population level, animals often segregate into distinct territorial areas. Consequently, it should be possible to derive territorial patterns from the underlying behavioural processes of animal movements and interactions. Such derivations are an important element in the development of an ecological theory that can predict the effects of changing conditions on territorial populations. Here, we review the approaches developed over the past 20 years or so, which go under the umbrella of 'mechanistic territorial models'. We detail the two main strands to this research: partial differential equations and individual-based approaches, showing what each has offered to our understanding of territoriality and how they can be unified. We explain how they are related to other approaches to studying territories and home ranges, and point towards possible future directions.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus