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Evolution of cardiorespiratory interactions with age.

Iatsenko D, Bernjak A, Stankovski T, Shiogai Y, Owen-Lynch PJ, Clarkson PB, McClintock PV, Stefanovska A - Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci (2013)

Bottom Line: We describe an analysis of cardiac and respiratory time series recorded from 189 subjects of both genders aged 16-90.By application of the synchrosqueezed wavelet transform, we extract the respiratory and cardiac frequencies and phases with better time resolution than is possible with the marked events procedure.We show that the direct and indirect respiratory modulations of the heart rate both decrease with age, and that the cardiorespiratory coupling becomes less stable and more time-variable.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB, UK.

ABSTRACT
We describe an analysis of cardiac and respiratory time series recorded from 189 subjects of both genders aged 16-90. By application of the synchrosqueezed wavelet transform, we extract the respiratory and cardiac frequencies and phases with better time resolution than is possible with the marked events procedure. By treating the heart and respiration as coupled oscillators, we then apply a method based on Bayesian inference to find the underlying coupling parameters and their time dependence, deriving from them measures such as synchronization, coupling directionality and the relative contributions of different mechanisms. We report a detailed analysis of the reconstructed cardiorespiratory coupling function, its time evolution and age dependence. We show that the direct and indirect respiratory modulations of the heart rate both decrease with age, and that the cardiorespiratory coupling becomes less stable and more time-variable.

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Age distribution of the subjects, shown as an overall histogram (a) and then divided by gender (b,c).
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RSTA20110622F9: Age distribution of the subjects, shown as an overall histogram (a) and then divided by gender (b,c).

Mentions: Because the Spearman's correlation coefficient only takes account of monotonic dependence, the subjects' datasets were divided into age bins, and medians over each bin are shown in the figures in order to better eliminate possibly nonlinear age dependence. The age bins are centred on 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 years and, except for the last group, are each of 10 years duration (e.g. the 50-year group includes subjects aged 46–55). The final bin includes all subjects older than 65 (up to 90). Age distributions for each gender are presented in figure 9. Note, however, that comparisons between age bins of particular gender may have not enough subjects for good statistics, given the complexity of the cardiorespiratory system and large individual influences. Therefore, our main conclusions are all based on the Spearman's correlation and its significance, which take into account all 99 male and/or 90 female subjects, whereas the information over age bins is provided mainly as a guide to the eye.Figure 9.


Evolution of cardiorespiratory interactions with age.

Iatsenko D, Bernjak A, Stankovski T, Shiogai Y, Owen-Lynch PJ, Clarkson PB, McClintock PV, Stefanovska A - Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci (2013)

Age distribution of the subjects, shown as an overall histogram (a) and then divided by gender (b,c).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4042892&req=5

RSTA20110622F9: Age distribution of the subjects, shown as an overall histogram (a) and then divided by gender (b,c).
Mentions: Because the Spearman's correlation coefficient only takes account of monotonic dependence, the subjects' datasets were divided into age bins, and medians over each bin are shown in the figures in order to better eliminate possibly nonlinear age dependence. The age bins are centred on 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 years and, except for the last group, are each of 10 years duration (e.g. the 50-year group includes subjects aged 46–55). The final bin includes all subjects older than 65 (up to 90). Age distributions for each gender are presented in figure 9. Note, however, that comparisons between age bins of particular gender may have not enough subjects for good statistics, given the complexity of the cardiorespiratory system and large individual influences. Therefore, our main conclusions are all based on the Spearman's correlation and its significance, which take into account all 99 male and/or 90 female subjects, whereas the information over age bins is provided mainly as a guide to the eye.Figure 9.

Bottom Line: We describe an analysis of cardiac and respiratory time series recorded from 189 subjects of both genders aged 16-90.By application of the synchrosqueezed wavelet transform, we extract the respiratory and cardiac frequencies and phases with better time resolution than is possible with the marked events procedure.We show that the direct and indirect respiratory modulations of the heart rate both decrease with age, and that the cardiorespiratory coupling becomes less stable and more time-variable.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB, UK.

ABSTRACT
We describe an analysis of cardiac and respiratory time series recorded from 189 subjects of both genders aged 16-90. By application of the synchrosqueezed wavelet transform, we extract the respiratory and cardiac frequencies and phases with better time resolution than is possible with the marked events procedure. By treating the heart and respiration as coupled oscillators, we then apply a method based on Bayesian inference to find the underlying coupling parameters and their time dependence, deriving from them measures such as synchronization, coupling directionality and the relative contributions of different mechanisms. We report a detailed analysis of the reconstructed cardiorespiratory coupling function, its time evolution and age dependence. We show that the direct and indirect respiratory modulations of the heart rate both decrease with age, and that the cardiorespiratory coupling becomes less stable and more time-variable.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus