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The role of peptide YY in gastrointestinal diseases and disorders (review).

El-Salhy M, Mazzawi T, Gundersen D, Hatlebakk JG, Hausken T - Int. J. Mol. Med. (2012)

Bottom Line: Abnormalities in PYY seem to contribute to the development of symptoms present in irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, gastroenteropathy in long-standing diabetes and CST.Similar to other neuroendocrine peptides/amines of the gut, PYY has broad physiological/pharmacological effects: it can bind to and activate several receptors with independent actions.Thus, in order to use PYY as a drug, receptor-specific agonists or antagonists need to be developed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Section for Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Stord Helse-Fonna Hospital, Stord, Norway. magdy.el-salhy@helse-fonna.no

ABSTRACT
Peptide YY (PYY) is affected in several gastrointestinal diseases and disorders. Changes in PYY appear to be an adaptive response to alterations in pathophysiological conditions caused by the disease. This applies to gastrointestinal diseases/disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, systemic sclerosis, and post-intestinal resection. By contrast, the changes in PYY in chronic idiopathic slow transit constipation (CST) seem to be of a primary nature, and may be one etiological factor of the disease. Abnormalities in PYY seem to contribute to the development of symptoms present in irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, gastroenteropathy in long-standing diabetes and CST. The changes in PYY could, however, be favorable in some gastrointestinal disorders such as celiac disease, systemic sclerosis and post-intestinal resection state. Investigating changes in PYY in gastrointestinal diseases/disorders could be beneficial in clinical practice, where a receptor agonist or an antagonist can be used as a drug, depending on the condition. Similar to other neuroendocrine peptides/amines of the gut, PYY has broad physiological/pharmacological effects: it can bind to and activate several receptors with independent actions. Thus, in order to use PYY as a drug, receptor-specific agonists or antagonists need to be developed.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

PYY-immunoreactive cells in the colon of (A) a healthy volunteer and (B) a patient withIBS.
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f1-ijmm-31-02-0275: PYY-immunoreactive cells in the colon of (A) a healthy volunteer and (B) a patient withIBS.

Mentions: In the large intestine of sporadic IBS patients, PYY cell density was found to be low inboth IBS-constipation and IBS-diarrhea patients (Fig. 1) (27).In the large intestine of the same patients, serotonin cell density was reduced and themucosal 5-HT concentration was also reported to be low (28). In the duodenum of IBS patients, the number of CCK cells wasalso low (29). Serotonin acts on5-HT1p receptors, which are located on a subset of inhibitory motor neurons of the myentericplexus and relax the stomach via a nitrergic pathway, delaying gastric emptying (26). The primary targets of serotonin arethe mucosal projections of primary afferent neurons, which transmit the sensation of nauseaand discomfort to the central nervous system, and the mucosal projections of intrinsicprimary afferent neurons, which initiate peristaltic and secretory reflexes (30–35). Serotonin also stimulates thesecretion of chloride and water from the small intestine by acting through 5-HT3 and 5-HT4receptors (36–40). The low density of serotonin cellsis likely to reduce motility and secretion of chloride and water in the colons of patientswith IBS. As compensation for this, PYY is reduced. As previously mentioned, CCK stimulatesthe release of PYY. Moreover, low CCK would result in low bile salts, which are stimulatoryfor PYY secretion. Thus, a low CCK could contribute to the low density of large intestinalPYY cells in IBS patients. The findings of genetic in transmission pathways of serotonin andCCK (41–44) support the assumption that thechange in colonic PYY cells is secondary to changes in serotonin and CCK.


The role of peptide YY in gastrointestinal diseases and disorders (review).

El-Salhy M, Mazzawi T, Gundersen D, Hatlebakk JG, Hausken T - Int. J. Mol. Med. (2012)

PYY-immunoreactive cells in the colon of (A) a healthy volunteer and (B) a patient withIBS.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4042877&req=5

f1-ijmm-31-02-0275: PYY-immunoreactive cells in the colon of (A) a healthy volunteer and (B) a patient withIBS.
Mentions: In the large intestine of sporadic IBS patients, PYY cell density was found to be low inboth IBS-constipation and IBS-diarrhea patients (Fig. 1) (27).In the large intestine of the same patients, serotonin cell density was reduced and themucosal 5-HT concentration was also reported to be low (28). In the duodenum of IBS patients, the number of CCK cells wasalso low (29). Serotonin acts on5-HT1p receptors, which are located on a subset of inhibitory motor neurons of the myentericplexus and relax the stomach via a nitrergic pathway, delaying gastric emptying (26). The primary targets of serotonin arethe mucosal projections of primary afferent neurons, which transmit the sensation of nauseaand discomfort to the central nervous system, and the mucosal projections of intrinsicprimary afferent neurons, which initiate peristaltic and secretory reflexes (30–35). Serotonin also stimulates thesecretion of chloride and water from the small intestine by acting through 5-HT3 and 5-HT4receptors (36–40). The low density of serotonin cellsis likely to reduce motility and secretion of chloride and water in the colons of patientswith IBS. As compensation for this, PYY is reduced. As previously mentioned, CCK stimulatesthe release of PYY. Moreover, low CCK would result in low bile salts, which are stimulatoryfor PYY secretion. Thus, a low CCK could contribute to the low density of large intestinalPYY cells in IBS patients. The findings of genetic in transmission pathways of serotonin andCCK (41–44) support the assumption that thechange in colonic PYY cells is secondary to changes in serotonin and CCK.

Bottom Line: Abnormalities in PYY seem to contribute to the development of symptoms present in irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, gastroenteropathy in long-standing diabetes and CST.Similar to other neuroendocrine peptides/amines of the gut, PYY has broad physiological/pharmacological effects: it can bind to and activate several receptors with independent actions.Thus, in order to use PYY as a drug, receptor-specific agonists or antagonists need to be developed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Section for Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Stord Helse-Fonna Hospital, Stord, Norway. magdy.el-salhy@helse-fonna.no

ABSTRACT
Peptide YY (PYY) is affected in several gastrointestinal diseases and disorders. Changes in PYY appear to be an adaptive response to alterations in pathophysiological conditions caused by the disease. This applies to gastrointestinal diseases/disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, systemic sclerosis, and post-intestinal resection. By contrast, the changes in PYY in chronic idiopathic slow transit constipation (CST) seem to be of a primary nature, and may be one etiological factor of the disease. Abnormalities in PYY seem to contribute to the development of symptoms present in irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, gastroenteropathy in long-standing diabetes and CST. The changes in PYY could, however, be favorable in some gastrointestinal disorders such as celiac disease, systemic sclerosis and post-intestinal resection state. Investigating changes in PYY in gastrointestinal diseases/disorders could be beneficial in clinical practice, where a receptor agonist or an antagonist can be used as a drug, depending on the condition. Similar to other neuroendocrine peptides/amines of the gut, PYY has broad physiological/pharmacological effects: it can bind to and activate several receptors with independent actions. Thus, in order to use PYY as a drug, receptor-specific agonists or antagonists need to be developed.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus