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Morphological and molecular affinities of two East Asian species of Stenhelia (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida).

Karanovic T, Kim K, Lee W - Zookeys (2014)

Bottom Line: A fragment of the mtCOI gene was successfully PCR-amplified from two specimens of each species, which represents the first molecular data for this genus, and from additional 19 specimens belonging to six different species of other stenheliins from Korea and Russia.Reconstructed phylogenies confirm previously postulated monophyly of Stenhelia and polyphyly of the closely related genus Delavalia Brady, 1869.Average pairwise maximum likelihood distances between S. pubescens and S. taiae are only slightly above 10%, suggesting a very close relationship despite numerous newly discovered micro-morphological differences and despite macro-morphological similarities being probable plesiomorphies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Hanyang University, Department of Life Sciences, Seoul 133-791, Korea ; University of Tasmania, Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Definition of monophyletic supraspecific units in the harpacticoid subfamily Stenheliinae Brady, 1880 has been considered problematic and hindered by the lack of molecular or morphology based phylogenies, as well as by incomplete original descriptions of many species. Presence of a modified seta on the fifth leg endopod has been suggested recently as a synapomorphy of eight species comprising the redefined genus Stenhelia Boeck, 1865, although its presence was not known in S. pubescens Chislenko, 1978. We redescribe this species in detail here, based on our freshly collected topotypes from the Russian Far East. The other species redescribed in this paper was collected from the southern coast of South Korea and identified as the Chinese S. taiae Mu & Huys, 2002, which represents its second record ever and the first one in Korea. A fragment of the mtCOI gene was successfully PCR-amplified from two specimens of each species, which represents the first molecular data for this genus, and from additional 19 specimens belonging to six different species of other stenheliins from Korea and Russia. Reconstructed phylogenies confirm previously postulated monophyly of Stenhelia and polyphyly of the closely related genus Delavalia Brady, 1869. Average pairwise maximum likelihood distances between S. pubescens and S. taiae are only slightly above 10%, suggesting a very close relationship despite numerous newly discovered micro-morphological differences and despite macro-morphological similarities being probable plesiomorphies.

No MeSH data available.


Maximum likelihood (ML) tree based on mtCOI sequence data of 23 stenheliin specimens from Gwangyang Bay (South Korea) and Posyet Bay (Russia), constructed using MEGA v 5.0.3 and an HKY+G model of evolution, with numbers on the branches representing bootstrap values from 500 pseudoreplicates. The tree is rooted with Schizopera leptafurca Karanovic & Cooper, 2012 from Western Australia. The cladogram is drawn to scale and the specimen codes correspond to those in Table 2.
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Figure 13: Maximum likelihood (ML) tree based on mtCOI sequence data of 23 stenheliin specimens from Gwangyang Bay (South Korea) and Posyet Bay (Russia), constructed using MEGA v 5.0.3 and an HKY+G model of evolution, with numbers on the branches representing bootstrap values from 500 pseudoreplicates. The tree is rooted with Schizopera leptafurca Karanovic & Cooper, 2012 from Western Australia. The cladogram is drawn to scale and the specimen codes correspond to those in Table 2.

Mentions: All analyses (Fig. 13) supported the presence of at least nine highly divergent lineages and all five of the multisample lineages were supported with high bootstrap values (>74% for ML). The tree topology in our NJ analysis was the same as in the ML analysis (Fig. 13), except the bootstrap values were generally slightly higher. Our MP analysis resulted in two equally parsimonious trees, each 61 steps long, and their consensus also had a very similar topology to our ML tree, except that bootstrap values were generally slightly lower; also the terminal clade in Willenstenhelia thalia was not supported in our MP analysis, nor was the sister relationship between Wellstenhelia calliope Karanovic & Kim, 2014 and Wellstenhelia clio Karanovic & Kim, 2014 (instead a sister relationship was suggested between Wellstenhelia qingdaoensis (Ma & Li, 2011) and Wellstenhelia clio, but the bootstrap value for this clade was only 39%). Our previous morphological analyses (see Karanovic and Kim 2014) suggested that Wellstenhelia clio is more closely related to Wellstenhelia calliope than to Wellstenhelia qingdaoensis (see above), which is why we have more confidence in our ML analysis than in our MP analysis, and all further molecular results and subsequent discussion will refer to the former (Fig. 13).


Morphological and molecular affinities of two East Asian species of Stenhelia (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida).

Karanovic T, Kim K, Lee W - Zookeys (2014)

Maximum likelihood (ML) tree based on mtCOI sequence data of 23 stenheliin specimens from Gwangyang Bay (South Korea) and Posyet Bay (Russia), constructed using MEGA v 5.0.3 and an HKY+G model of evolution, with numbers on the branches representing bootstrap values from 500 pseudoreplicates. The tree is rooted with Schizopera leptafurca Karanovic & Cooper, 2012 from Western Australia. The cladogram is drawn to scale and the specimen codes correspond to those in Table 2.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons-attribution
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4042820&req=5

Figure 13: Maximum likelihood (ML) tree based on mtCOI sequence data of 23 stenheliin specimens from Gwangyang Bay (South Korea) and Posyet Bay (Russia), constructed using MEGA v 5.0.3 and an HKY+G model of evolution, with numbers on the branches representing bootstrap values from 500 pseudoreplicates. The tree is rooted with Schizopera leptafurca Karanovic & Cooper, 2012 from Western Australia. The cladogram is drawn to scale and the specimen codes correspond to those in Table 2.
Mentions: All analyses (Fig. 13) supported the presence of at least nine highly divergent lineages and all five of the multisample lineages were supported with high bootstrap values (>74% for ML). The tree topology in our NJ analysis was the same as in the ML analysis (Fig. 13), except the bootstrap values were generally slightly higher. Our MP analysis resulted in two equally parsimonious trees, each 61 steps long, and their consensus also had a very similar topology to our ML tree, except that bootstrap values were generally slightly lower; also the terminal clade in Willenstenhelia thalia was not supported in our MP analysis, nor was the sister relationship between Wellstenhelia calliope Karanovic & Kim, 2014 and Wellstenhelia clio Karanovic & Kim, 2014 (instead a sister relationship was suggested between Wellstenhelia qingdaoensis (Ma & Li, 2011) and Wellstenhelia clio, but the bootstrap value for this clade was only 39%). Our previous morphological analyses (see Karanovic and Kim 2014) suggested that Wellstenhelia clio is more closely related to Wellstenhelia calliope than to Wellstenhelia qingdaoensis (see above), which is why we have more confidence in our ML analysis than in our MP analysis, and all further molecular results and subsequent discussion will refer to the former (Fig. 13).

Bottom Line: A fragment of the mtCOI gene was successfully PCR-amplified from two specimens of each species, which represents the first molecular data for this genus, and from additional 19 specimens belonging to six different species of other stenheliins from Korea and Russia.Reconstructed phylogenies confirm previously postulated monophyly of Stenhelia and polyphyly of the closely related genus Delavalia Brady, 1869.Average pairwise maximum likelihood distances between S. pubescens and S. taiae are only slightly above 10%, suggesting a very close relationship despite numerous newly discovered micro-morphological differences and despite macro-morphological similarities being probable plesiomorphies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Hanyang University, Department of Life Sciences, Seoul 133-791, Korea ; University of Tasmania, Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Definition of monophyletic supraspecific units in the harpacticoid subfamily Stenheliinae Brady, 1880 has been considered problematic and hindered by the lack of molecular or morphology based phylogenies, as well as by incomplete original descriptions of many species. Presence of a modified seta on the fifth leg endopod has been suggested recently as a synapomorphy of eight species comprising the redefined genus Stenhelia Boeck, 1865, although its presence was not known in S. pubescens Chislenko, 1978. We redescribe this species in detail here, based on our freshly collected topotypes from the Russian Far East. The other species redescribed in this paper was collected from the southern coast of South Korea and identified as the Chinese S. taiae Mu & Huys, 2002, which represents its second record ever and the first one in Korea. A fragment of the mtCOI gene was successfully PCR-amplified from two specimens of each species, which represents the first molecular data for this genus, and from additional 19 specimens belonging to six different species of other stenheliins from Korea and Russia. Reconstructed phylogenies confirm previously postulated monophyly of Stenhelia and polyphyly of the closely related genus Delavalia Brady, 1869. Average pairwise maximum likelihood distances between S. pubescens and S. taiae are only slightly above 10%, suggesting a very close relationship despite numerous newly discovered micro-morphological differences and despite macro-morphological similarities being probable plesiomorphies.

No MeSH data available.