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Phylogenetic relationships of Malaysia's long-tailed macaques, Macaca fascicularis, based on cytochrome b sequences.

Abdul-Latiff MA, Ruslin F, Fui VV, Abu MH, Rovie-Ryan JJ, Abdul-Patah P, Lakim M, Roos C, Yaakop S, Md-Zain BM - Zookeys (2014)

Bottom Line: The results confirm the previous morphological assignment of 2 subspecies, M. f. fascicularis and M. f. argentimembris, in the Malay Peninsula.These populations should be treated as separate genetic entities in order to conserve the genetic diversity of Malaysia's M. fascicularis.These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations in Malaysia.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Phylogenetic relationships among Malaysia's long-tailed macaques have yet to be established, despite abundant genetic studies of the species worldwide. The aims of this study are to examine the phylogenetic relationships of Macaca fascicularis in Malaysia and to test its classification as a morphological subspecies. A total of 25 genetic samples of M. fascicularis yielding 383 bp of Cytochrome b (Cyt b) sequences were used in phylogenetic analysis along with one sample each of M. nemestrina and M. arctoides used as outgroups. Sequence character analysis reveals that Cyt b locus is a highly conserved region with only 23% parsimony informative character detected among ingroups. Further analysis indicates a clear separation between populations originating from different regions; the Malay Peninsula versus Borneo Insular, the East Coast versus West Coast of the Malay Peninsula, and the island versus mainland Malay Peninsula populations. Phylogenetic trees (NJ, MP and Bayesian) portray a consistent clustering paradigm as Borneo's population was distinguished from Peninsula's population (99% and 100% bootstrap value in NJ and MP respectively and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian trees). The East coast population was separated from other Peninsula populations (64% in NJ, 66% in MP and 0.53 posterior probability in Bayesian). West coast populations were divided into 2 clades: the North-South (47%/54% in NJ, 26/26% in MP and 1.00/0.80 posterior probability in Bayesian) and Island-Mainland (93% in NJ, 90% in MP and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian). The results confirm the previous morphological assignment of 2 subspecies, M. f. fascicularis and M. f. argentimembris, in the Malay Peninsula. These populations should be treated as separate genetic entities in order to conserve the genetic diversity of Malaysia's M. fascicularis. These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations in Malaysia.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The Bootstrap 50% majority rule consensus maximum parsimony tree of Macaca fascicularis populations. Bootstrap values are indicated on the branch.
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Figure 4: The Bootstrap 50% majority rule consensus maximum parsimony tree of Macaca fascicularis populations. Bootstrap values are indicated on the branch.

Mentions: MP (Figure 4) analysis was conducted using PAUP 4.0 (CI = 0.929, HI = 0.071, RI = 0.944, RC = 0.878 and tree length = 85). Macaca fascicularis populations were separated into 2 main clades, a Borneo clade and a Peninsula Malaysia clade both supported by 100% bootstrap value in the MP tree. Peninsula Malaysia’s population was further divided into 2 sub clades, the East Coast of Peninsula Malaysia and West Coast of Peninsula Malaysia populations supported by 66% and 72% bootstrap value respectively. The West Coast of Peninsula Malaysia populations were further divided into 2 clades, comprising the mainland and island populations (Pulau Pinang) supported by 45% and 90% bootstrap value. The Northern Peninsula (Perak) and Southern Peninsula (Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and Johor) clades were also separated, both supported by 26% bootstrap value.


Phylogenetic relationships of Malaysia's long-tailed macaques, Macaca fascicularis, based on cytochrome b sequences.

Abdul-Latiff MA, Ruslin F, Fui VV, Abu MH, Rovie-Ryan JJ, Abdul-Patah P, Lakim M, Roos C, Yaakop S, Md-Zain BM - Zookeys (2014)

The Bootstrap 50% majority rule consensus maximum parsimony tree of Macaca fascicularis populations. Bootstrap values are indicated on the branch.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons-attribution
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4042704&req=5

Figure 4: The Bootstrap 50% majority rule consensus maximum parsimony tree of Macaca fascicularis populations. Bootstrap values are indicated on the branch.
Mentions: MP (Figure 4) analysis was conducted using PAUP 4.0 (CI = 0.929, HI = 0.071, RI = 0.944, RC = 0.878 and tree length = 85). Macaca fascicularis populations were separated into 2 main clades, a Borneo clade and a Peninsula Malaysia clade both supported by 100% bootstrap value in the MP tree. Peninsula Malaysia’s population was further divided into 2 sub clades, the East Coast of Peninsula Malaysia and West Coast of Peninsula Malaysia populations supported by 66% and 72% bootstrap value respectively. The West Coast of Peninsula Malaysia populations were further divided into 2 clades, comprising the mainland and island populations (Pulau Pinang) supported by 45% and 90% bootstrap value. The Northern Peninsula (Perak) and Southern Peninsula (Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and Johor) clades were also separated, both supported by 26% bootstrap value.

Bottom Line: The results confirm the previous morphological assignment of 2 subspecies, M. f. fascicularis and M. f. argentimembris, in the Malay Peninsula.These populations should be treated as separate genetic entities in order to conserve the genetic diversity of Malaysia's M. fascicularis.These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations in Malaysia.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Phylogenetic relationships among Malaysia's long-tailed macaques have yet to be established, despite abundant genetic studies of the species worldwide. The aims of this study are to examine the phylogenetic relationships of Macaca fascicularis in Malaysia and to test its classification as a morphological subspecies. A total of 25 genetic samples of M. fascicularis yielding 383 bp of Cytochrome b (Cyt b) sequences were used in phylogenetic analysis along with one sample each of M. nemestrina and M. arctoides used as outgroups. Sequence character analysis reveals that Cyt b locus is a highly conserved region with only 23% parsimony informative character detected among ingroups. Further analysis indicates a clear separation between populations originating from different regions; the Malay Peninsula versus Borneo Insular, the East Coast versus West Coast of the Malay Peninsula, and the island versus mainland Malay Peninsula populations. Phylogenetic trees (NJ, MP and Bayesian) portray a consistent clustering paradigm as Borneo's population was distinguished from Peninsula's population (99% and 100% bootstrap value in NJ and MP respectively and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian trees). The East coast population was separated from other Peninsula populations (64% in NJ, 66% in MP and 0.53 posterior probability in Bayesian). West coast populations were divided into 2 clades: the North-South (47%/54% in NJ, 26/26% in MP and 1.00/0.80 posterior probability in Bayesian) and Island-Mainland (93% in NJ, 90% in MP and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian). The results confirm the previous morphological assignment of 2 subspecies, M. f. fascicularis and M. f. argentimembris, in the Malay Peninsula. These populations should be treated as separate genetic entities in order to conserve the genetic diversity of Malaysia's M. fascicularis. These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations in Malaysia.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus