Limits...
Phylogenetic relationships of Malaysia's long-tailed macaques, Macaca fascicularis, based on cytochrome b sequences.

Abdul-Latiff MA, Ruslin F, Fui VV, Abu MH, Rovie-Ryan JJ, Abdul-Patah P, Lakim M, Roos C, Yaakop S, Md-Zain BM - Zookeys (2014)

Bottom Line: The results confirm the previous morphological assignment of 2 subspecies, M. f. fascicularis and M. f. argentimembris, in the Malay Peninsula.These populations should be treated as separate genetic entities in order to conserve the genetic diversity of Malaysia's M. fascicularis.These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations in Malaysia.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Phylogenetic relationships among Malaysia's long-tailed macaques have yet to be established, despite abundant genetic studies of the species worldwide. The aims of this study are to examine the phylogenetic relationships of Macaca fascicularis in Malaysia and to test its classification as a morphological subspecies. A total of 25 genetic samples of M. fascicularis yielding 383 bp of Cytochrome b (Cyt b) sequences were used in phylogenetic analysis along with one sample each of M. nemestrina and M. arctoides used as outgroups. Sequence character analysis reveals that Cyt b locus is a highly conserved region with only 23% parsimony informative character detected among ingroups. Further analysis indicates a clear separation between populations originating from different regions; the Malay Peninsula versus Borneo Insular, the East Coast versus West Coast of the Malay Peninsula, and the island versus mainland Malay Peninsula populations. Phylogenetic trees (NJ, MP and Bayesian) portray a consistent clustering paradigm as Borneo's population was distinguished from Peninsula's population (99% and 100% bootstrap value in NJ and MP respectively and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian trees). The East coast population was separated from other Peninsula populations (64% in NJ, 66% in MP and 0.53 posterior probability in Bayesian). West coast populations were divided into 2 clades: the North-South (47%/54% in NJ, 26/26% in MP and 1.00/0.80 posterior probability in Bayesian) and Island-Mainland (93% in NJ, 90% in MP and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian). The results confirm the previous morphological assignment of 2 subspecies, M. f. fascicularis and M. f. argentimembris, in the Malay Peninsula. These populations should be treated as separate genetic entities in order to conserve the genetic diversity of Malaysia's M. fascicularis. These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations in Malaysia.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Neighbor joining phylogenetic tree using Kimura-2-Parameter algorithm with bootstrap values indicated on the branch.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons-attribution
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4042704&req=5

Figure 3: Neighbor joining phylogenetic tree using Kimura-2-Parameter algorithm with bootstrap values indicated on the branch.

Mentions: The NJ phylogeny tree (Figure 3) was generated using Kimura-2-Parameter with 1000 bootstrap replication. The NJ phylogenetic tree showed that samples originating from Borneo remain monophyletic from samples originating from Peninsula Malaysia, supported with 99% bootstrap value. Samples from Peninsula Malaysia were divided into 2 clades; clade A and Clade B. Clade A portrays the separation of samples originating from the East Coast of Peninsula Malaysia from the remaining samples with 64% bootstrap value. Clade B on the other hand is the assemblage of populations of the West Coast of Peninsula Malaysia, supported by 90% bootstrap value. Within Clade B, two further clades were defined, namely island population (Pulau Pinang) and mainland populations (Perak, Negeri Sembilan, Johor, and Selangor) supported by 93% and 54% bootstrap value respectively. Populations from southern Peninsula (Negeri Sembilan, Johor and Selangor) and northern Peninsula (Perak) also were distinguished by 54% and 47% bootstrap value correspondingly.


Phylogenetic relationships of Malaysia's long-tailed macaques, Macaca fascicularis, based on cytochrome b sequences.

Abdul-Latiff MA, Ruslin F, Fui VV, Abu MH, Rovie-Ryan JJ, Abdul-Patah P, Lakim M, Roos C, Yaakop S, Md-Zain BM - Zookeys (2014)

Neighbor joining phylogenetic tree using Kimura-2-Parameter algorithm with bootstrap values indicated on the branch.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons-attribution
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4042704&req=5

Figure 3: Neighbor joining phylogenetic tree using Kimura-2-Parameter algorithm with bootstrap values indicated on the branch.
Mentions: The NJ phylogeny tree (Figure 3) was generated using Kimura-2-Parameter with 1000 bootstrap replication. The NJ phylogenetic tree showed that samples originating from Borneo remain monophyletic from samples originating from Peninsula Malaysia, supported with 99% bootstrap value. Samples from Peninsula Malaysia were divided into 2 clades; clade A and Clade B. Clade A portrays the separation of samples originating from the East Coast of Peninsula Malaysia from the remaining samples with 64% bootstrap value. Clade B on the other hand is the assemblage of populations of the West Coast of Peninsula Malaysia, supported by 90% bootstrap value. Within Clade B, two further clades were defined, namely island population (Pulau Pinang) and mainland populations (Perak, Negeri Sembilan, Johor, and Selangor) supported by 93% and 54% bootstrap value respectively. Populations from southern Peninsula (Negeri Sembilan, Johor and Selangor) and northern Peninsula (Perak) also were distinguished by 54% and 47% bootstrap value correspondingly.

Bottom Line: The results confirm the previous morphological assignment of 2 subspecies, M. f. fascicularis and M. f. argentimembris, in the Malay Peninsula.These populations should be treated as separate genetic entities in order to conserve the genetic diversity of Malaysia's M. fascicularis.These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations in Malaysia.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Phylogenetic relationships among Malaysia's long-tailed macaques have yet to be established, despite abundant genetic studies of the species worldwide. The aims of this study are to examine the phylogenetic relationships of Macaca fascicularis in Malaysia and to test its classification as a morphological subspecies. A total of 25 genetic samples of M. fascicularis yielding 383 bp of Cytochrome b (Cyt b) sequences were used in phylogenetic analysis along with one sample each of M. nemestrina and M. arctoides used as outgroups. Sequence character analysis reveals that Cyt b locus is a highly conserved region with only 23% parsimony informative character detected among ingroups. Further analysis indicates a clear separation between populations originating from different regions; the Malay Peninsula versus Borneo Insular, the East Coast versus West Coast of the Malay Peninsula, and the island versus mainland Malay Peninsula populations. Phylogenetic trees (NJ, MP and Bayesian) portray a consistent clustering paradigm as Borneo's population was distinguished from Peninsula's population (99% and 100% bootstrap value in NJ and MP respectively and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian trees). The East coast population was separated from other Peninsula populations (64% in NJ, 66% in MP and 0.53 posterior probability in Bayesian). West coast populations were divided into 2 clades: the North-South (47%/54% in NJ, 26/26% in MP and 1.00/0.80 posterior probability in Bayesian) and Island-Mainland (93% in NJ, 90% in MP and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian). The results confirm the previous morphological assignment of 2 subspecies, M. f. fascicularis and M. f. argentimembris, in the Malay Peninsula. These populations should be treated as separate genetic entities in order to conserve the genetic diversity of Malaysia's M. fascicularis. These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations in Malaysia.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus