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Phylogenetic relationships of Malaysia's long-tailed macaques, Macaca fascicularis, based on cytochrome b sequences.

Abdul-Latiff MA, Ruslin F, Fui VV, Abu MH, Rovie-Ryan JJ, Abdul-Patah P, Lakim M, Roos C, Yaakop S, Md-Zain BM - Zookeys (2014)

Bottom Line: The results confirm the previous morphological assignment of 2 subspecies, M. f. fascicularis and M. f. argentimembris, in the Malay Peninsula.These populations should be treated as separate genetic entities in order to conserve the genetic diversity of Malaysia's M. fascicularis.These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations in Malaysia.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Phylogenetic relationships among Malaysia's long-tailed macaques have yet to be established, despite abundant genetic studies of the species worldwide. The aims of this study are to examine the phylogenetic relationships of Macaca fascicularis in Malaysia and to test its classification as a morphological subspecies. A total of 25 genetic samples of M. fascicularis yielding 383 bp of Cytochrome b (Cyt b) sequences were used in phylogenetic analysis along with one sample each of M. nemestrina and M. arctoides used as outgroups. Sequence character analysis reveals that Cyt b locus is a highly conserved region with only 23% parsimony informative character detected among ingroups. Further analysis indicates a clear separation between populations originating from different regions; the Malay Peninsula versus Borneo Insular, the East Coast versus West Coast of the Malay Peninsula, and the island versus mainland Malay Peninsula populations. Phylogenetic trees (NJ, MP and Bayesian) portray a consistent clustering paradigm as Borneo's population was distinguished from Peninsula's population (99% and 100% bootstrap value in NJ and MP respectively and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian trees). The East coast population was separated from other Peninsula populations (64% in NJ, 66% in MP and 0.53 posterior probability in Bayesian). West coast populations were divided into 2 clades: the North-South (47%/54% in NJ, 26/26% in MP and 1.00/0.80 posterior probability in Bayesian) and Island-Mainland (93% in NJ, 90% in MP and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian). The results confirm the previous morphological assignment of 2 subspecies, M. f. fascicularis and M. f. argentimembris, in the Malay Peninsula. These populations should be treated as separate genetic entities in order to conserve the genetic diversity of Malaysia's M. fascicularis. These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations in Malaysia.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Distribution of the long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) in Southeast Asia (Gumert et al. 2011).
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Figure 1: Distribution of the long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) in Southeast Asia (Gumert et al. 2011).

Mentions: Macaca fascicularis (Raffles, 1821) is also known as long-tailed, crab-eating or cynomolgus macaque. This species is well distributed in the countries of Malaysia, Brunei, Bangladesh, Cambodia, Nicobar Islands, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Timor-Leste and Vietnam (Figure 1) (Gumert et al. 2011). There appears to be a hybrid zone between Macaca fascicularis and Macaca mulatta (Zimmermann, 1780) in the northern range above mainland Southeast Asia, which makes it difficult to determine the northern distribution limit of Macaca fascicularis (Fooden 1996). The distribution of long-tailed macaques was extended to the Pacific Ocean (Palau) (Crombie and Pregill 1999), Indian Ocean (Mauritius) (Trask et al. 2013) and New Guinea (Kemp and Burnett 2003) due to human-mediated introduction of the species to these respective regions in the recent past.


Phylogenetic relationships of Malaysia's long-tailed macaques, Macaca fascicularis, based on cytochrome b sequences.

Abdul-Latiff MA, Ruslin F, Fui VV, Abu MH, Rovie-Ryan JJ, Abdul-Patah P, Lakim M, Roos C, Yaakop S, Md-Zain BM - Zookeys (2014)

Distribution of the long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) in Southeast Asia (Gumert et al. 2011).
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons-attribution
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4042704&req=5

Figure 1: Distribution of the long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) in Southeast Asia (Gumert et al. 2011).
Mentions: Macaca fascicularis (Raffles, 1821) is also known as long-tailed, crab-eating or cynomolgus macaque. This species is well distributed in the countries of Malaysia, Brunei, Bangladesh, Cambodia, Nicobar Islands, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Timor-Leste and Vietnam (Figure 1) (Gumert et al. 2011). There appears to be a hybrid zone between Macaca fascicularis and Macaca mulatta (Zimmermann, 1780) in the northern range above mainland Southeast Asia, which makes it difficult to determine the northern distribution limit of Macaca fascicularis (Fooden 1996). The distribution of long-tailed macaques was extended to the Pacific Ocean (Palau) (Crombie and Pregill 1999), Indian Ocean (Mauritius) (Trask et al. 2013) and New Guinea (Kemp and Burnett 2003) due to human-mediated introduction of the species to these respective regions in the recent past.

Bottom Line: The results confirm the previous morphological assignment of 2 subspecies, M. f. fascicularis and M. f. argentimembris, in the Malay Peninsula.These populations should be treated as separate genetic entities in order to conserve the genetic diversity of Malaysia's M. fascicularis.These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations in Malaysia.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Phylogenetic relationships among Malaysia's long-tailed macaques have yet to be established, despite abundant genetic studies of the species worldwide. The aims of this study are to examine the phylogenetic relationships of Macaca fascicularis in Malaysia and to test its classification as a morphological subspecies. A total of 25 genetic samples of M. fascicularis yielding 383 bp of Cytochrome b (Cyt b) sequences were used in phylogenetic analysis along with one sample each of M. nemestrina and M. arctoides used as outgroups. Sequence character analysis reveals that Cyt b locus is a highly conserved region with only 23% parsimony informative character detected among ingroups. Further analysis indicates a clear separation between populations originating from different regions; the Malay Peninsula versus Borneo Insular, the East Coast versus West Coast of the Malay Peninsula, and the island versus mainland Malay Peninsula populations. Phylogenetic trees (NJ, MP and Bayesian) portray a consistent clustering paradigm as Borneo's population was distinguished from Peninsula's population (99% and 100% bootstrap value in NJ and MP respectively and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian trees). The East coast population was separated from other Peninsula populations (64% in NJ, 66% in MP and 0.53 posterior probability in Bayesian). West coast populations were divided into 2 clades: the North-South (47%/54% in NJ, 26/26% in MP and 1.00/0.80 posterior probability in Bayesian) and Island-Mainland (93% in NJ, 90% in MP and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian). The results confirm the previous morphological assignment of 2 subspecies, M. f. fascicularis and M. f. argentimembris, in the Malay Peninsula. These populations should be treated as separate genetic entities in order to conserve the genetic diversity of Malaysia's M. fascicularis. These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations in Malaysia.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus