Limits...
Biogeography and taxonomy of extinct and endangered monk seals illuminated by ancient DNA and skull morphology.

Scheel DM, Slater GJ, Kolokotronis SO, Potter CW, Rotstein DS, Tsangaras K, Greenwood AD, Helgen KM - Zookeys (2014)

Bottom Line: Molecular, morphological and temporal divergence between the Mediterranean and "New World monk seals" (Hawaiian and Caribbean) is profound, equivalent to or greater than between sister genera of phocids.As a result, we classify the Caribbean and Hawaiian monk seals together in a newly erected genus, Neomonachus.The two genera of extant monk seals (Monachus and Neomonachus) represent old evolutionary lineages each represented by a single critically endangered species, both warranting continuing and concerted conservation attention and investment if they are to avoid the fate of their Caribbean relative.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Alfred-Kowalke-Str. 17, 10315 Berlin, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Extinctions and declines of large marine vertebrates have major ecological impacts and are of critical concern in marine environments. The Caribbean monk seal, Monachus tropicalis, last definitively reported in 1952, was one of the few marine mammal species to become extinct in historical times. Despite its importance for understanding the evolutionary biogeography of southern phocids, the relationships of M. tropicalis to the two living species of critically endangered monk seals have not been resolved. In this study we present the first molecular data for M. tropicalis, derived from museum skins. Phylogenetic analysis of cytochrome b sequences indicates that M. tropicalis was more closely related to the Hawaiian rather than the Mediterranean monk seal. Divergence time estimation implicates the formation of the Panamanian Isthmus in the speciation of Caribbean and Hawaiian monk seals. Molecular, morphological and temporal divergence between the Mediterranean and "New World monk seals" (Hawaiian and Caribbean) is profound, equivalent to or greater than between sister genera of phocids. As a result, we classify the Caribbean and Hawaiian monk seals together in a newly erected genus, Neomonachus. The two genera of extant monk seals (Monachus and Neomonachus) represent old evolutionary lineages each represented by a single critically endangered species, both warranting continuing and concerted conservation attention and investment if they are to avoid the fate of their Caribbean relative.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Medial view of right dentaries of aMonachus monachusbNeomonachus schauinslandi, and cNeomonachus tropicalis. The mandibular foramen is situated inferior to the mandibular notch in Monachus, and opens immediately to the medial surface of the ramus. In Neomonachus, the foramen is anteriorly displaced and is set in a groove or sulcus that extends from inferior to the mandibular notch. Also note the expanded rugose area for insertion of the pterygoid muscles in Monachus. This region is poorly developed in Neomonachus.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons-attribution
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4042687&req=5

Figure 11: Medial view of right dentaries of aMonachus monachusbNeomonachus schauinslandi, and cNeomonachus tropicalis. The mandibular foramen is situated inferior to the mandibular notch in Monachus, and opens immediately to the medial surface of the ramus. In Neomonachus, the foramen is anteriorly displaced and is set in a groove or sulcus that extends from inferior to the mandibular notch. Also note the expanded rugose area for insertion of the pterygoid muscles in Monachus. This region is poorly developed in Neomonachus.

Mentions: The mandible of Neomonachus is long and slender compared with that of Monachus, and the coronoid process is lower and less broad antero-posteriorly (King 1956; Figure 11). The mandibular foramen is anteriorly displaced and lies at the termination of a shallow, antero-ventrally oriented sulcus that begins below the level of the mandibular notch. In Monachus, the foramen opens directly at this level. The insertion of the pterygoid muscles is relatively undefined in Neomonachus as compared to the markedly expanded area evident in Monachus (Figure 11).


Biogeography and taxonomy of extinct and endangered monk seals illuminated by ancient DNA and skull morphology.

Scheel DM, Slater GJ, Kolokotronis SO, Potter CW, Rotstein DS, Tsangaras K, Greenwood AD, Helgen KM - Zookeys (2014)

Medial view of right dentaries of aMonachus monachusbNeomonachus schauinslandi, and cNeomonachus tropicalis. The mandibular foramen is situated inferior to the mandibular notch in Monachus, and opens immediately to the medial surface of the ramus. In Neomonachus, the foramen is anteriorly displaced and is set in a groove or sulcus that extends from inferior to the mandibular notch. Also note the expanded rugose area for insertion of the pterygoid muscles in Monachus. This region is poorly developed in Neomonachus.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons-attribution
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4042687&req=5

Figure 11: Medial view of right dentaries of aMonachus monachusbNeomonachus schauinslandi, and cNeomonachus tropicalis. The mandibular foramen is situated inferior to the mandibular notch in Monachus, and opens immediately to the medial surface of the ramus. In Neomonachus, the foramen is anteriorly displaced and is set in a groove or sulcus that extends from inferior to the mandibular notch. Also note the expanded rugose area for insertion of the pterygoid muscles in Monachus. This region is poorly developed in Neomonachus.
Mentions: The mandible of Neomonachus is long and slender compared with that of Monachus, and the coronoid process is lower and less broad antero-posteriorly (King 1956; Figure 11). The mandibular foramen is anteriorly displaced and lies at the termination of a shallow, antero-ventrally oriented sulcus that begins below the level of the mandibular notch. In Monachus, the foramen opens directly at this level. The insertion of the pterygoid muscles is relatively undefined in Neomonachus as compared to the markedly expanded area evident in Monachus (Figure 11).

Bottom Line: Molecular, morphological and temporal divergence between the Mediterranean and "New World monk seals" (Hawaiian and Caribbean) is profound, equivalent to or greater than between sister genera of phocids.As a result, we classify the Caribbean and Hawaiian monk seals together in a newly erected genus, Neomonachus.The two genera of extant monk seals (Monachus and Neomonachus) represent old evolutionary lineages each represented by a single critically endangered species, both warranting continuing and concerted conservation attention and investment if they are to avoid the fate of their Caribbean relative.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Alfred-Kowalke-Str. 17, 10315 Berlin, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Extinctions and declines of large marine vertebrates have major ecological impacts and are of critical concern in marine environments. The Caribbean monk seal, Monachus tropicalis, last definitively reported in 1952, was one of the few marine mammal species to become extinct in historical times. Despite its importance for understanding the evolutionary biogeography of southern phocids, the relationships of M. tropicalis to the two living species of critically endangered monk seals have not been resolved. In this study we present the first molecular data for M. tropicalis, derived from museum skins. Phylogenetic analysis of cytochrome b sequences indicates that M. tropicalis was more closely related to the Hawaiian rather than the Mediterranean monk seal. Divergence time estimation implicates the formation of the Panamanian Isthmus in the speciation of Caribbean and Hawaiian monk seals. Molecular, morphological and temporal divergence between the Mediterranean and "New World monk seals" (Hawaiian and Caribbean) is profound, equivalent to or greater than between sister genera of phocids. As a result, we classify the Caribbean and Hawaiian monk seals together in a newly erected genus, Neomonachus. The two genera of extant monk seals (Monachus and Neomonachus) represent old evolutionary lineages each represented by a single critically endangered species, both warranting continuing and concerted conservation attention and investment if they are to avoid the fate of their Caribbean relative.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus