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Biogeography and taxonomy of extinct and endangered monk seals illuminated by ancient DNA and skull morphology.

Scheel DM, Slater GJ, Kolokotronis SO, Potter CW, Rotstein DS, Tsangaras K, Greenwood AD, Helgen KM - Zookeys (2014)

Bottom Line: Molecular, morphological and temporal divergence between the Mediterranean and "New World monk seals" (Hawaiian and Caribbean) is profound, equivalent to or greater than between sister genera of phocids.As a result, we classify the Caribbean and Hawaiian monk seals together in a newly erected genus, Neomonachus.The two genera of extant monk seals (Monachus and Neomonachus) represent old evolutionary lineages each represented by a single critically endangered species, both warranting continuing and concerted conservation attention and investment if they are to avoid the fate of their Caribbean relative.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Alfred-Kowalke-Str. 17, 10315 Berlin, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Extinctions and declines of large marine vertebrates have major ecological impacts and are of critical concern in marine environments. The Caribbean monk seal, Monachus tropicalis, last definitively reported in 1952, was one of the few marine mammal species to become extinct in historical times. Despite its importance for understanding the evolutionary biogeography of southern phocids, the relationships of M. tropicalis to the two living species of critically endangered monk seals have not been resolved. In this study we present the first molecular data for M. tropicalis, derived from museum skins. Phylogenetic analysis of cytochrome b sequences indicates that M. tropicalis was more closely related to the Hawaiian rather than the Mediterranean monk seal. Divergence time estimation implicates the formation of the Panamanian Isthmus in the speciation of Caribbean and Hawaiian monk seals. Molecular, morphological and temporal divergence between the Mediterranean and "New World monk seals" (Hawaiian and Caribbean) is profound, equivalent to or greater than between sister genera of phocids. As a result, we classify the Caribbean and Hawaiian monk seals together in a newly erected genus, Neomonachus. The two genera of extant monk seals (Monachus and Neomonachus) represent old evolutionary lineages each represented by a single critically endangered species, both warranting continuing and concerted conservation attention and investment if they are to avoid the fate of their Caribbean relative.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Time-calibrated phylogeny of the seals estimated from combined nuclear and mitochondrial data. Time scale is in millions of years before present. Note that the chronogram has been pruned to show only true seals and immediate pinniped outgroups. Node bars show the 95% HPD intervals for divergence time estimates and mean ages are labeled for the two divergence times within the monk seals. Labeling at the top indicates water circulation through the Central American Seaway, the circle and associated wavy blue lines indicate a period during which water circulation periodically ceased and resumed but a shallow seaway remained open.
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Figure 3: Time-calibrated phylogeny of the seals estimated from combined nuclear and mitochondrial data. Time scale is in millions of years before present. Note that the chronogram has been pruned to show only true seals and immediate pinniped outgroups. Node bars show the 95% HPD intervals for divergence time estimates and mean ages are labeled for the two divergence times within the monk seals. Labeling at the top indicates water circulation through the Central American Seaway, the circle and associated wavy blue lines indicate a period during which water circulation periodically ceased and resumed but a shallow seaway remained open.

Mentions: We estimated the divergence of the Caribbean and Hawaiian monk seals at 3.67 Mya (95% HPD = 1.90–5.45 Mya). Node age estimates throughout the rest of the chronogram derived from analysis of the nuclear + mitochondrial genome data are consistent with those recovered by the original analysis of Fulton and Strobeck (2010a) (Figure 3). The Mediterranean-New World monk seal divergence is dated at 6.30 Mya (95% HPD = 4.98–7.64 Mya) in our analyses, slightly older than, but broadly overlapping with the age of 5.48 Mya (95% HPD = 3.93–7.13 Mya) reported by Fulton and Strobeck (2010a).


Biogeography and taxonomy of extinct and endangered monk seals illuminated by ancient DNA and skull morphology.

Scheel DM, Slater GJ, Kolokotronis SO, Potter CW, Rotstein DS, Tsangaras K, Greenwood AD, Helgen KM - Zookeys (2014)

Time-calibrated phylogeny of the seals estimated from combined nuclear and mitochondrial data. Time scale is in millions of years before present. Note that the chronogram has been pruned to show only true seals and immediate pinniped outgroups. Node bars show the 95% HPD intervals for divergence time estimates and mean ages are labeled for the two divergence times within the monk seals. Labeling at the top indicates water circulation through the Central American Seaway, the circle and associated wavy blue lines indicate a period during which water circulation periodically ceased and resumed but a shallow seaway remained open.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons-attribution
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4042687&req=5

Figure 3: Time-calibrated phylogeny of the seals estimated from combined nuclear and mitochondrial data. Time scale is in millions of years before present. Note that the chronogram has been pruned to show only true seals and immediate pinniped outgroups. Node bars show the 95% HPD intervals for divergence time estimates and mean ages are labeled for the two divergence times within the monk seals. Labeling at the top indicates water circulation through the Central American Seaway, the circle and associated wavy blue lines indicate a period during which water circulation periodically ceased and resumed but a shallow seaway remained open.
Mentions: We estimated the divergence of the Caribbean and Hawaiian monk seals at 3.67 Mya (95% HPD = 1.90–5.45 Mya). Node age estimates throughout the rest of the chronogram derived from analysis of the nuclear + mitochondrial genome data are consistent with those recovered by the original analysis of Fulton and Strobeck (2010a) (Figure 3). The Mediterranean-New World monk seal divergence is dated at 6.30 Mya (95% HPD = 4.98–7.64 Mya) in our analyses, slightly older than, but broadly overlapping with the age of 5.48 Mya (95% HPD = 3.93–7.13 Mya) reported by Fulton and Strobeck (2010a).

Bottom Line: Molecular, morphological and temporal divergence between the Mediterranean and "New World monk seals" (Hawaiian and Caribbean) is profound, equivalent to or greater than between sister genera of phocids.As a result, we classify the Caribbean and Hawaiian monk seals together in a newly erected genus, Neomonachus.The two genera of extant monk seals (Monachus and Neomonachus) represent old evolutionary lineages each represented by a single critically endangered species, both warranting continuing and concerted conservation attention and investment if they are to avoid the fate of their Caribbean relative.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Alfred-Kowalke-Str. 17, 10315 Berlin, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Extinctions and declines of large marine vertebrates have major ecological impacts and are of critical concern in marine environments. The Caribbean monk seal, Monachus tropicalis, last definitively reported in 1952, was one of the few marine mammal species to become extinct in historical times. Despite its importance for understanding the evolutionary biogeography of southern phocids, the relationships of M. tropicalis to the two living species of critically endangered monk seals have not been resolved. In this study we present the first molecular data for M. tropicalis, derived from museum skins. Phylogenetic analysis of cytochrome b sequences indicates that M. tropicalis was more closely related to the Hawaiian rather than the Mediterranean monk seal. Divergence time estimation implicates the formation of the Panamanian Isthmus in the speciation of Caribbean and Hawaiian monk seals. Molecular, morphological and temporal divergence between the Mediterranean and "New World monk seals" (Hawaiian and Caribbean) is profound, equivalent to or greater than between sister genera of phocids. As a result, we classify the Caribbean and Hawaiian monk seals together in a newly erected genus, Neomonachus. The two genera of extant monk seals (Monachus and Neomonachus) represent old evolutionary lineages each represented by a single critically endangered species, both warranting continuing and concerted conservation attention and investment if they are to avoid the fate of their Caribbean relative.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus