Limits...
Biogeography and taxonomy of extinct and endangered monk seals illuminated by ancient DNA and skull morphology.

Scheel DM, Slater GJ, Kolokotronis SO, Potter CW, Rotstein DS, Tsangaras K, Greenwood AD, Helgen KM - Zookeys (2014)

Bottom Line: Molecular, morphological and temporal divergence between the Mediterranean and "New World monk seals" (Hawaiian and Caribbean) is profound, equivalent to or greater than between sister genera of phocids.As a result, we classify the Caribbean and Hawaiian monk seals together in a newly erected genus, Neomonachus.The two genera of extant monk seals (Monachus and Neomonachus) represent old evolutionary lineages each represented by a single critically endangered species, both warranting continuing and concerted conservation attention and investment if they are to avoid the fate of their Caribbean relative.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Alfred-Kowalke-Str. 17, 10315 Berlin, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Extinctions and declines of large marine vertebrates have major ecological impacts and are of critical concern in marine environments. The Caribbean monk seal, Monachus tropicalis, last definitively reported in 1952, was one of the few marine mammal species to become extinct in historical times. Despite its importance for understanding the evolutionary biogeography of southern phocids, the relationships of M. tropicalis to the two living species of critically endangered monk seals have not been resolved. In this study we present the first molecular data for M. tropicalis, derived from museum skins. Phylogenetic analysis of cytochrome b sequences indicates that M. tropicalis was more closely related to the Hawaiian rather than the Mediterranean monk seal. Divergence time estimation implicates the formation of the Panamanian Isthmus in the speciation of Caribbean and Hawaiian monk seals. Molecular, morphological and temporal divergence between the Mediterranean and "New World monk seals" (Hawaiian and Caribbean) is profound, equivalent to or greater than between sister genera of phocids. As a result, we classify the Caribbean and Hawaiian monk seals together in a newly erected genus, Neomonachus. The two genera of extant monk seals (Monachus and Neomonachus) represent old evolutionary lineages each represented by a single critically endangered species, both warranting continuing and concerted conservation attention and investment if they are to avoid the fate of their Caribbean relative.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Distributions of the three monk seal species. The range for the Caribbean monk seal is taken from Adam (2004) and is based on documented populations and archeological evidence. The range of the Mediterranean monk seal illustrates both historical (lighter shading) and current (darker shading) distributions.
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Figure 1: Distributions of the three monk seal species. The range for the Caribbean monk seal is taken from Adam (2004) and is based on documented populations and archeological evidence. The range of the Mediterranean monk seal illustrates both historical (lighter shading) and current (darker shading) distributions.

Mentions: The Caribbean monk seal, Monachus tropicalis (Gray, 1850), first referenced on the New World voyages of Columbus in 1494 and Ponce de Leon in 1513, was one of the few large mammals to become extinct in the twentieth century. Until relatively recently, Monachus tropicalis was widely distributed in the Caribbean region (Figure 1), including along the Caribbean coasts of North, Central, and South America, and in the Bahamas and the Greater and Lesser Antilles (Timm et al. 1997, Adam 2004, Adam and Garcia 2003, McClenachan and Cooper 2008). Historical population estimates for the species ranged from 233,000–338,000 prior to the catastrophic decline of the species, caused by unrestricted hunting that increased throughout the nineteenth century (McClenachan and Cooper 2008). No well-documented sightings postdate 1952, and the species is widely regarded as extinct (Mignucci-Giannoni and Odell 2001, Adam and Garcia 2003, McClenachan and Cooper 2008). This is the only historical example of a marine mammal extinction in the tropics, and one of few species-level extinctions of marine mammals in the historical period, along with the Steller’s sea cow (Hydrodamalis gigas, North Pacific, last recorded in 1768), the Japanese sea lion (Zalophus japonicus, East Asia, last recorded in 1951), and the Yangtze River dolphin or Baiji (Lipotes vexillifer, Yangtze River of China, probably extinct within the past decade) (Flannery and Schouten 2001, Wolf et al. 2007, Turvey 2009, Turvey et al. 2007).


Biogeography and taxonomy of extinct and endangered monk seals illuminated by ancient DNA and skull morphology.

Scheel DM, Slater GJ, Kolokotronis SO, Potter CW, Rotstein DS, Tsangaras K, Greenwood AD, Helgen KM - Zookeys (2014)

Distributions of the three monk seal species. The range for the Caribbean monk seal is taken from Adam (2004) and is based on documented populations and archeological evidence. The range of the Mediterranean monk seal illustrates both historical (lighter shading) and current (darker shading) distributions.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons-attribution
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4042687&req=5

Figure 1: Distributions of the three monk seal species. The range for the Caribbean monk seal is taken from Adam (2004) and is based on documented populations and archeological evidence. The range of the Mediterranean monk seal illustrates both historical (lighter shading) and current (darker shading) distributions.
Mentions: The Caribbean monk seal, Monachus tropicalis (Gray, 1850), first referenced on the New World voyages of Columbus in 1494 and Ponce de Leon in 1513, was one of the few large mammals to become extinct in the twentieth century. Until relatively recently, Monachus tropicalis was widely distributed in the Caribbean region (Figure 1), including along the Caribbean coasts of North, Central, and South America, and in the Bahamas and the Greater and Lesser Antilles (Timm et al. 1997, Adam 2004, Adam and Garcia 2003, McClenachan and Cooper 2008). Historical population estimates for the species ranged from 233,000–338,000 prior to the catastrophic decline of the species, caused by unrestricted hunting that increased throughout the nineteenth century (McClenachan and Cooper 2008). No well-documented sightings postdate 1952, and the species is widely regarded as extinct (Mignucci-Giannoni and Odell 2001, Adam and Garcia 2003, McClenachan and Cooper 2008). This is the only historical example of a marine mammal extinction in the tropics, and one of few species-level extinctions of marine mammals in the historical period, along with the Steller’s sea cow (Hydrodamalis gigas, North Pacific, last recorded in 1768), the Japanese sea lion (Zalophus japonicus, East Asia, last recorded in 1951), and the Yangtze River dolphin or Baiji (Lipotes vexillifer, Yangtze River of China, probably extinct within the past decade) (Flannery and Schouten 2001, Wolf et al. 2007, Turvey 2009, Turvey et al. 2007).

Bottom Line: Molecular, morphological and temporal divergence between the Mediterranean and "New World monk seals" (Hawaiian and Caribbean) is profound, equivalent to or greater than between sister genera of phocids.As a result, we classify the Caribbean and Hawaiian monk seals together in a newly erected genus, Neomonachus.The two genera of extant monk seals (Monachus and Neomonachus) represent old evolutionary lineages each represented by a single critically endangered species, both warranting continuing and concerted conservation attention and investment if they are to avoid the fate of their Caribbean relative.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Alfred-Kowalke-Str. 17, 10315 Berlin, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Extinctions and declines of large marine vertebrates have major ecological impacts and are of critical concern in marine environments. The Caribbean monk seal, Monachus tropicalis, last definitively reported in 1952, was one of the few marine mammal species to become extinct in historical times. Despite its importance for understanding the evolutionary biogeography of southern phocids, the relationships of M. tropicalis to the two living species of critically endangered monk seals have not been resolved. In this study we present the first molecular data for M. tropicalis, derived from museum skins. Phylogenetic analysis of cytochrome b sequences indicates that M. tropicalis was more closely related to the Hawaiian rather than the Mediterranean monk seal. Divergence time estimation implicates the formation of the Panamanian Isthmus in the speciation of Caribbean and Hawaiian monk seals. Molecular, morphological and temporal divergence between the Mediterranean and "New World monk seals" (Hawaiian and Caribbean) is profound, equivalent to or greater than between sister genera of phocids. As a result, we classify the Caribbean and Hawaiian monk seals together in a newly erected genus, Neomonachus. The two genera of extant monk seals (Monachus and Neomonachus) represent old evolutionary lineages each represented by a single critically endangered species, both warranting continuing and concerted conservation attention and investment if they are to avoid the fate of their Caribbean relative.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus