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Uncovering plant-pathogen crosstalk through apoplastic proteomic studies.

Delaunois B, Jeandet P, Clément C, Baillieul F, Dorey S, Cordelier S - Front Plant Sci (2014)

Bottom Line: In turn, the plant immune system recognizes microbial- or damage-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs or DAMPs) and initiates a set of basal immune responses, including the strengthening of the plant cell wall.A fine regulation of apoplastic proteins is therefore essential for rapid and effective pathogen perception and for maintaining cell wall integrity.This review aims to provide insight into analyses using proteomic approaches of the apoplast to highlight the modulation of the apoplastic protein patterns during pathogen infection and to unravel the key players involved in plant-pathogen interaction.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratoire Stress, Défenses et Reproduction des Plantes, Unité de Recherche Vignes et Vins de Champagne-EA 4707, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne Reims, France.

ABSTRACT
Plant pathogens have evolved by developing different strategies to infect their host, which in turn have elaborated immune responses to counter the pathogen invasion. The apoplast, including the cell wall and extracellular space outside the plasma membrane, is one of the first compartments where pathogen-host interaction occurs. The plant cell wall is composed of a complex network of polysaccharides polymers and glycoproteins and serves as a natural physical barrier against pathogen invasion. The apoplastic fluid, circulating through the cell wall and intercellular spaces, provides a means for delivering molecules and facilitating intercellular communications. Some plant-pathogen interactions lead to plant cell wall degradation allowing pathogens to penetrate into the cells. In turn, the plant immune system recognizes microbial- or damage-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs or DAMPs) and initiates a set of basal immune responses, including the strengthening of the plant cell wall. The establishment of defense requires the regulation of a wide variety of proteins that are involved at different levels, from receptor perception of the pathogen via signaling mechanisms to the strengthening of the cell wall or degradation of the pathogen itself. A fine regulation of apoplastic proteins is therefore essential for rapid and effective pathogen perception and for maintaining cell wall integrity. This review aims to provide insight into analyses using proteomic approaches of the apoplast to highlight the modulation of the apoplastic protein patterns during pathogen infection and to unravel the key players involved in plant-pathogen interaction.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic overview of some events occurring in apoplast during plant pathogen interactions. This illustration, based on studies described in this paper, presents some examples of apoplastic proteins regulated during biotic stresses. These proteins are secreted by the plant cell (green square) and/or pathogen (brown square). Some proteins, modulated in the apoplast after DAMP or MAMP perception, are involved in pathogen perception and signal transduction, leading to the activation of intracellular plant defense signaling pathways (blue arrows). The regulation of a large amount of proteins involved in redox homeostasis modulates the ROS signaling pathway leading to activation of extra- and intracellular plant defense responses (blue arrows). These proteins, such as peroxidases or oxalate oxidases participate also to the plant cell defense through plant cell wall reinforcement or direct pathogen attack (gray arrow). Plant cell wall is actively remodeled and/or reinforced through the regulation of numerous enzymes, such as polyglacturonases or glucanases, which are secreted by the pathogen or its host. Some of the cell wall degradation products can act as DAMP (green arrow) to stimulate plant defense signaling pathways. Most of the defense-related proteins, such as chitinases or glucanases, act directly against the pathogen (gray arrow), releasing degradation products that can be perceived as MAMP by the plant cell (brown arrow).
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Figure 1: Schematic overview of some events occurring in apoplast during plant pathogen interactions. This illustration, based on studies described in this paper, presents some examples of apoplastic proteins regulated during biotic stresses. These proteins are secreted by the plant cell (green square) and/or pathogen (brown square). Some proteins, modulated in the apoplast after DAMP or MAMP perception, are involved in pathogen perception and signal transduction, leading to the activation of intracellular plant defense signaling pathways (blue arrows). The regulation of a large amount of proteins involved in redox homeostasis modulates the ROS signaling pathway leading to activation of extra- and intracellular plant defense responses (blue arrows). These proteins, such as peroxidases or oxalate oxidases participate also to the plant cell defense through plant cell wall reinforcement or direct pathogen attack (gray arrow). Plant cell wall is actively remodeled and/or reinforced through the regulation of numerous enzymes, such as polyglacturonases or glucanases, which are secreted by the pathogen or its host. Some of the cell wall degradation products can act as DAMP (green arrow) to stimulate plant defense signaling pathways. Most of the defense-related proteins, such as chitinases or glucanases, act directly against the pathogen (gray arrow), releasing degradation products that can be perceived as MAMP by the plant cell (brown arrow).

Mentions: As mentioned before, early perception of the pathogen occurs in the apoplastic compartment and several proteomic studies have highlighted the regulation of apoplastic proteins potentially involved in pathogen perception and signal transduction. These apoplastic proteins generally feature LRR-type motifs suggesting a potential receptor role for these proteins and they sometimes undergo PTM like phosphorylation suggesting an involvement in signal transduction cascades. In the secretome of Arabidopsis suspension cultures elicited with chitosan, the phosphorylation of a cell wall bound putative receptor-like protein suggests that elicitor-treatment involves signal transduction cascades initiated in the apoplast through accumulation of phosphorylated extracellular receptor-like proteins (Ndimba et al., 2003). In the apoplast of Arabidopsis leaves elicited by oligogalacturonides, Casasoli et al. (2008) observed the accumulation of a disease resistance related LRR protein, characterized by a LRR domain composed of 13 repeats of the extracytoplasmic type (eLRRs), and previously localized in the plant cell wall (Borderies et al., 2003; Bayer et al., 2006) (Figure 1). The correlation of this LRR protein accumulation with the induction of its corresponding transcript as well as the reported induction of its gene during the incompatible interaction with Alternaria brassicicola suggest a role in pathogen perception (Schenk et al., 2003).


Uncovering plant-pathogen crosstalk through apoplastic proteomic studies.

Delaunois B, Jeandet P, Clément C, Baillieul F, Dorey S, Cordelier S - Front Plant Sci (2014)

Schematic overview of some events occurring in apoplast during plant pathogen interactions. This illustration, based on studies described in this paper, presents some examples of apoplastic proteins regulated during biotic stresses. These proteins are secreted by the plant cell (green square) and/or pathogen (brown square). Some proteins, modulated in the apoplast after DAMP or MAMP perception, are involved in pathogen perception and signal transduction, leading to the activation of intracellular plant defense signaling pathways (blue arrows). The regulation of a large amount of proteins involved in redox homeostasis modulates the ROS signaling pathway leading to activation of extra- and intracellular plant defense responses (blue arrows). These proteins, such as peroxidases or oxalate oxidases participate also to the plant cell defense through plant cell wall reinforcement or direct pathogen attack (gray arrow). Plant cell wall is actively remodeled and/or reinforced through the regulation of numerous enzymes, such as polyglacturonases or glucanases, which are secreted by the pathogen or its host. Some of the cell wall degradation products can act as DAMP (green arrow) to stimulate plant defense signaling pathways. Most of the defense-related proteins, such as chitinases or glucanases, act directly against the pathogen (gray arrow), releasing degradation products that can be perceived as MAMP by the plant cell (brown arrow).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4042593&req=5

Figure 1: Schematic overview of some events occurring in apoplast during plant pathogen interactions. This illustration, based on studies described in this paper, presents some examples of apoplastic proteins regulated during biotic stresses. These proteins are secreted by the plant cell (green square) and/or pathogen (brown square). Some proteins, modulated in the apoplast after DAMP or MAMP perception, are involved in pathogen perception and signal transduction, leading to the activation of intracellular plant defense signaling pathways (blue arrows). The regulation of a large amount of proteins involved in redox homeostasis modulates the ROS signaling pathway leading to activation of extra- and intracellular plant defense responses (blue arrows). These proteins, such as peroxidases or oxalate oxidases participate also to the plant cell defense through plant cell wall reinforcement or direct pathogen attack (gray arrow). Plant cell wall is actively remodeled and/or reinforced through the regulation of numerous enzymes, such as polyglacturonases or glucanases, which are secreted by the pathogen or its host. Some of the cell wall degradation products can act as DAMP (green arrow) to stimulate plant defense signaling pathways. Most of the defense-related proteins, such as chitinases or glucanases, act directly against the pathogen (gray arrow), releasing degradation products that can be perceived as MAMP by the plant cell (brown arrow).
Mentions: As mentioned before, early perception of the pathogen occurs in the apoplastic compartment and several proteomic studies have highlighted the regulation of apoplastic proteins potentially involved in pathogen perception and signal transduction. These apoplastic proteins generally feature LRR-type motifs suggesting a potential receptor role for these proteins and they sometimes undergo PTM like phosphorylation suggesting an involvement in signal transduction cascades. In the secretome of Arabidopsis suspension cultures elicited with chitosan, the phosphorylation of a cell wall bound putative receptor-like protein suggests that elicitor-treatment involves signal transduction cascades initiated in the apoplast through accumulation of phosphorylated extracellular receptor-like proteins (Ndimba et al., 2003). In the apoplast of Arabidopsis leaves elicited by oligogalacturonides, Casasoli et al. (2008) observed the accumulation of a disease resistance related LRR protein, characterized by a LRR domain composed of 13 repeats of the extracytoplasmic type (eLRRs), and previously localized in the plant cell wall (Borderies et al., 2003; Bayer et al., 2006) (Figure 1). The correlation of this LRR protein accumulation with the induction of its corresponding transcript as well as the reported induction of its gene during the incompatible interaction with Alternaria brassicicola suggest a role in pathogen perception (Schenk et al., 2003).

Bottom Line: In turn, the plant immune system recognizes microbial- or damage-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs or DAMPs) and initiates a set of basal immune responses, including the strengthening of the plant cell wall.A fine regulation of apoplastic proteins is therefore essential for rapid and effective pathogen perception and for maintaining cell wall integrity.This review aims to provide insight into analyses using proteomic approaches of the apoplast to highlight the modulation of the apoplastic protein patterns during pathogen infection and to unravel the key players involved in plant-pathogen interaction.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratoire Stress, Défenses et Reproduction des Plantes, Unité de Recherche Vignes et Vins de Champagne-EA 4707, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne Reims, France.

ABSTRACT
Plant pathogens have evolved by developing different strategies to infect their host, which in turn have elaborated immune responses to counter the pathogen invasion. The apoplast, including the cell wall and extracellular space outside the plasma membrane, is one of the first compartments where pathogen-host interaction occurs. The plant cell wall is composed of a complex network of polysaccharides polymers and glycoproteins and serves as a natural physical barrier against pathogen invasion. The apoplastic fluid, circulating through the cell wall and intercellular spaces, provides a means for delivering molecules and facilitating intercellular communications. Some plant-pathogen interactions lead to plant cell wall degradation allowing pathogens to penetrate into the cells. In turn, the plant immune system recognizes microbial- or damage-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs or DAMPs) and initiates a set of basal immune responses, including the strengthening of the plant cell wall. The establishment of defense requires the regulation of a wide variety of proteins that are involved at different levels, from receptor perception of the pathogen via signaling mechanisms to the strengthening of the cell wall or degradation of the pathogen itself. A fine regulation of apoplastic proteins is therefore essential for rapid and effective pathogen perception and for maintaining cell wall integrity. This review aims to provide insight into analyses using proteomic approaches of the apoplast to highlight the modulation of the apoplastic protein patterns during pathogen infection and to unravel the key players involved in plant-pathogen interaction.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus