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DHA-containing oilseed: a timely solution for the sustainability issues surrounding fish oil sources of the health-benefitting long-chain omega-3 oils.

Kitessa SM, Abeywardena M, Wijesundera C, Nichols PD - Nutrients (2014)

Bottom Line: Benefits of long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils) for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented.The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies.However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CSIRO Animal, Foods and Health Sciences, P.O. Box 10041, Adelaide BC, SA 5000, Australia. Soressa.Kitessa@csiro.au.

ABSTRACT
Benefits of long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils) for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented. The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies. These developments have led to increased consumer demand for LC omega-3 oils and, coupled with increasing global population, will impact on future sustainable supply of fish. Seafood supply from aquaculture has risen over the past decades and it relies on harvest of wild catch fisheries also for its fish oil needs. Alternate sources of LC omega-3 oils are being pursued, including genetically modified soybean rich in shorter-chain stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3). However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA. A recent breakthrough has seen the demonstration of a land plant-based oil enriched in DHA, and with omega-6 PUFA levels close to that occurring in marine sources of EPA and DHA. We review alternative sources of DHA supply with emphasis on the need for land plant oils containing EPA and DHA.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Farmed Atlantic salmon from Tasmania, Australia from 2002 (fish oil diet) [23] and 2010 to 2013 (chicken fat/fish oil diet) [108]: Content of EPA (white bars) and DHA (black bars) (mg/100 g, wet weight).
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nutrients-06-02035-f005: Farmed Atlantic salmon from Tasmania, Australia from 2002 (fish oil diet) [23] and 2010 to 2013 (chicken fat/fish oil diet) [108]: Content of EPA (white bars) and DHA (black bars) (mg/100 g, wet weight).

Mentions: Aquaculture can be considered as a traditional industry with fish culture occurring for many centuries. Modern aquaculture expansion began in the 1980s and has continued to rise steadily since, with the high value salmonoid fish such as Atlantic salmon being the species of choice. Fish oil, produced as a by-product of the fish meal industry, had been the main oil incorporated into fish feed until recent years. As noted earlier, the past decade has seen fish oil availability decrease and also prices increase substantially. From the use of 100% FO (of the oil component), feed manufacturers are now using up to 75% or higher of vegetable or animal-derived oils [106]. The topic of FO replacement and alternative lipid sources has been recently examined in considerable detail, with a review book now available for researchers, industry and other end users [107]. Given the availability of such a substantial resource, it is not the purpose of this section to further review this topic. This FO substitution can include mixes such as FO/rapeseed oil, FO/chicken fat, and also other combinations. Whilst fish growth and performance is generally not affected, the concentration of omega-3 LC-PUFA and the omega-3/omega-6 ratio in fillet products is markedly changed. For farmed Atlantic salmon grown in Tasmania, Australia, the concentration of EPA and DHA has reduced by ≥30%–50% or more (Figure 5), and the omega-3/omega-6 ratio also has reduced markedly. Marine fish typically show an omega-3/omega-6 ratio of between 5 and 10, and for the first time in 2013 the ratio in farmed salmon in Australia has decreased to less than 1 [108].


DHA-containing oilseed: a timely solution for the sustainability issues surrounding fish oil sources of the health-benefitting long-chain omega-3 oils.

Kitessa SM, Abeywardena M, Wijesundera C, Nichols PD - Nutrients (2014)

Farmed Atlantic salmon from Tasmania, Australia from 2002 (fish oil diet) [23] and 2010 to 2013 (chicken fat/fish oil diet) [108]: Content of EPA (white bars) and DHA (black bars) (mg/100 g, wet weight).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4042577&req=5

nutrients-06-02035-f005: Farmed Atlantic salmon from Tasmania, Australia from 2002 (fish oil diet) [23] and 2010 to 2013 (chicken fat/fish oil diet) [108]: Content of EPA (white bars) and DHA (black bars) (mg/100 g, wet weight).
Mentions: Aquaculture can be considered as a traditional industry with fish culture occurring for many centuries. Modern aquaculture expansion began in the 1980s and has continued to rise steadily since, with the high value salmonoid fish such as Atlantic salmon being the species of choice. Fish oil, produced as a by-product of the fish meal industry, had been the main oil incorporated into fish feed until recent years. As noted earlier, the past decade has seen fish oil availability decrease and also prices increase substantially. From the use of 100% FO (of the oil component), feed manufacturers are now using up to 75% or higher of vegetable or animal-derived oils [106]. The topic of FO replacement and alternative lipid sources has been recently examined in considerable detail, with a review book now available for researchers, industry and other end users [107]. Given the availability of such a substantial resource, it is not the purpose of this section to further review this topic. This FO substitution can include mixes such as FO/rapeseed oil, FO/chicken fat, and also other combinations. Whilst fish growth and performance is generally not affected, the concentration of omega-3 LC-PUFA and the omega-3/omega-6 ratio in fillet products is markedly changed. For farmed Atlantic salmon grown in Tasmania, Australia, the concentration of EPA and DHA has reduced by ≥30%–50% or more (Figure 5), and the omega-3/omega-6 ratio also has reduced markedly. Marine fish typically show an omega-3/omega-6 ratio of between 5 and 10, and for the first time in 2013 the ratio in farmed salmon in Australia has decreased to less than 1 [108].

Bottom Line: Benefits of long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils) for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented.The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies.However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CSIRO Animal, Foods and Health Sciences, P.O. Box 10041, Adelaide BC, SA 5000, Australia. Soressa.Kitessa@csiro.au.

ABSTRACT
Benefits of long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils) for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented. The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies. These developments have led to increased consumer demand for LC omega-3 oils and, coupled with increasing global population, will impact on future sustainable supply of fish. Seafood supply from aquaculture has risen over the past decades and it relies on harvest of wild catch fisheries also for its fish oil needs. Alternate sources of LC omega-3 oils are being pursued, including genetically modified soybean rich in shorter-chain stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3). However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA. A recent breakthrough has seen the demonstration of a land plant-based oil enriched in DHA, and with omega-6 PUFA levels close to that occurring in marine sources of EPA and DHA. We review alternative sources of DHA supply with emphasis on the need for land plant oils containing EPA and DHA.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus