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DHA-containing oilseed: a timely solution for the sustainability issues surrounding fish oil sources of the health-benefitting long-chain omega-3 oils.

Kitessa SM, Abeywardena M, Wijesundera C, Nichols PD - Nutrients (2014)

Bottom Line: Benefits of long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils) for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented.The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies.However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CSIRO Animal, Foods and Health Sciences, P.O. Box 10041, Adelaide BC, SA 5000, Australia. Soressa.Kitessa@csiro.au.

ABSTRACT
Benefits of long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils) for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented. The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies. These developments have led to increased consumer demand for LC omega-3 oils and, coupled with increasing global population, will impact on future sustainable supply of fish. Seafood supply from aquaculture has risen over the past decades and it relies on harvest of wild catch fisheries also for its fish oil needs. Alternate sources of LC omega-3 oils are being pursued, including genetically modified soybean rich in shorter-chain stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3). However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA. A recent breakthrough has seen the demonstration of a land plant-based oil enriched in DHA, and with omega-6 PUFA levels close to that occurring in marine sources of EPA and DHA. We review alternative sources of DHA supply with emphasis on the need for land plant oils containing EPA and DHA.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Levels of omega-3 PUFA (ALA) and omega-3 LC-PUFA (EPA, DPA and DHA) in thigh muscle from broilers on a diet with: (1) no oil supplement; (2) vegetable oil; (3) fish oil; (4) marine algae; or (5) SDA-containing oil [66,67,68,69,70,71,72,73,74].
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nutrients-06-02035-f003: Levels of omega-3 PUFA (ALA) and omega-3 LC-PUFA (EPA, DPA and DHA) in thigh muscle from broilers on a diet with: (1) no oil supplement; (2) vegetable oil; (3) fish oil; (4) marine algae; or (5) SDA-containing oil [66,67,68,69,70,71,72,73,74].

Mentions: Selected poultry data from feeding experiments [66,67,68,69,70,71,72,73,74] where different oils have been used to enrich thigh muscle are summarised in Figure 3. There were only modest changes in EPA and DHA content in broiler muscle samples when the oil supplement itself did not contain the omega-3 LC-PUFA. The evidence from such a large range of experiments did not indicate marked benefit from using C18 oils in enriching tissues particularly with DHA (Figure 3). Similar trends were noted when we reviewed EPA and DHA enrichment of egg from omega-3 oil-supplemented laying hens and breast muscle in broilers (data not shown). Similarly, data from lamb meat studies [75,76,77,78,79,80,81,82,83,84] are summarized in Figure 4. Levels of EPA and DHA in lamb meat were lowest in studies where vegetable oils were used. As the dietary fat supplement shifted towards marine sources, the levels of EPA and DHA in lamb meat increased across experiments. The evidence so far suggests that the best way to enhance the DHA content of livestock products is to include DHA containing fat supplements in the diet. There is as yet no convincing evidence that current fat supplements containing ALA or SDA are suitable alternatives for those containing preformed EPA and especially DHA.


DHA-containing oilseed: a timely solution for the sustainability issues surrounding fish oil sources of the health-benefitting long-chain omega-3 oils.

Kitessa SM, Abeywardena M, Wijesundera C, Nichols PD - Nutrients (2014)

Levels of omega-3 PUFA (ALA) and omega-3 LC-PUFA (EPA, DPA and DHA) in thigh muscle from broilers on a diet with: (1) no oil supplement; (2) vegetable oil; (3) fish oil; (4) marine algae; or (5) SDA-containing oil [66,67,68,69,70,71,72,73,74].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4042577&req=5

nutrients-06-02035-f003: Levels of omega-3 PUFA (ALA) and omega-3 LC-PUFA (EPA, DPA and DHA) in thigh muscle from broilers on a diet with: (1) no oil supplement; (2) vegetable oil; (3) fish oil; (4) marine algae; or (5) SDA-containing oil [66,67,68,69,70,71,72,73,74].
Mentions: Selected poultry data from feeding experiments [66,67,68,69,70,71,72,73,74] where different oils have been used to enrich thigh muscle are summarised in Figure 3. There were only modest changes in EPA and DHA content in broiler muscle samples when the oil supplement itself did not contain the omega-3 LC-PUFA. The evidence from such a large range of experiments did not indicate marked benefit from using C18 oils in enriching tissues particularly with DHA (Figure 3). Similar trends were noted when we reviewed EPA and DHA enrichment of egg from omega-3 oil-supplemented laying hens and breast muscle in broilers (data not shown). Similarly, data from lamb meat studies [75,76,77,78,79,80,81,82,83,84] are summarized in Figure 4. Levels of EPA and DHA in lamb meat were lowest in studies where vegetable oils were used. As the dietary fat supplement shifted towards marine sources, the levels of EPA and DHA in lamb meat increased across experiments. The evidence so far suggests that the best way to enhance the DHA content of livestock products is to include DHA containing fat supplements in the diet. There is as yet no convincing evidence that current fat supplements containing ALA or SDA are suitable alternatives for those containing preformed EPA and especially DHA.

Bottom Line: Benefits of long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils) for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented.The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies.However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CSIRO Animal, Foods and Health Sciences, P.O. Box 10041, Adelaide BC, SA 5000, Australia. Soressa.Kitessa@csiro.au.

ABSTRACT
Benefits of long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils) for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented. The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies. These developments have led to increased consumer demand for LC omega-3 oils and, coupled with increasing global population, will impact on future sustainable supply of fish. Seafood supply from aquaculture has risen over the past decades and it relies on harvest of wild catch fisheries also for its fish oil needs. Alternate sources of LC omega-3 oils are being pursued, including genetically modified soybean rich in shorter-chain stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3). However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA. A recent breakthrough has seen the demonstration of a land plant-based oil enriched in DHA, and with omega-6 PUFA levels close to that occurring in marine sources of EPA and DHA. We review alternative sources of DHA supply with emphasis on the need for land plant oils containing EPA and DHA.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus