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DHA-containing oilseed: a timely solution for the sustainability issues surrounding fish oil sources of the health-benefitting long-chain omega-3 oils.

Kitessa SM, Abeywardena M, Wijesundera C, Nichols PD - Nutrients (2014)

Bottom Line: Benefits of long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils) for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented.The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies.However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CSIRO Animal, Foods and Health Sciences, P.O. Box 10041, Adelaide BC, SA 5000, Australia. Soressa.Kitessa@csiro.au.

ABSTRACT
Benefits of long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils) for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented. The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies. These developments have led to increased consumer demand for LC omega-3 oils and, coupled with increasing global population, will impact on future sustainable supply of fish. Seafood supply from aquaculture has risen over the past decades and it relies on harvest of wild catch fisheries also for its fish oil needs. Alternate sources of LC omega-3 oils are being pursued, including genetically modified soybean rich in shorter-chain stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3). However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA. A recent breakthrough has seen the demonstration of a land plant-based oil enriched in DHA, and with omega-6 PUFA levels close to that occurring in marine sources of EPA and DHA. We review alternative sources of DHA supply with emphasis on the need for land plant oils containing EPA and DHA.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic showing synthesis of shorter-chain fatty acids in land plants (black horizontal arrows), followed by addition of genes from marine microalgae (blue vertical arrows) resulting in new LC omega-3 containing oilseeds. elo, elongase; des, desaturase.
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nutrients-06-02035-f002: Schematic showing synthesis of shorter-chain fatty acids in land plants (black horizontal arrows), followed by addition of genes from marine microalgae (blue vertical arrows) resulting in new LC omega-3 containing oilseeds. elo, elongase; des, desaturase.

Mentions: The availability of the SDA-containing Echium oil (around 14% SDA of total FA) has enabled this potential EPA/DHA precursor, which is one step more advanced than ALA to be trialed in animal, including farmed fish, and human nutrition research. The general hypothesis driving this line of research has been that animals and farmed fish fed SDA oils would produce tissue containing greater proportion of EPA and DHA than those fed ALA oils. This is based on the assumption that the inefficiency in the biosynthesis of EPA and DHA from ALA is related to the rate-limiting step of converting ALA to SDA (Figure 2).


DHA-containing oilseed: a timely solution for the sustainability issues surrounding fish oil sources of the health-benefitting long-chain omega-3 oils.

Kitessa SM, Abeywardena M, Wijesundera C, Nichols PD - Nutrients (2014)

Schematic showing synthesis of shorter-chain fatty acids in land plants (black horizontal arrows), followed by addition of genes from marine microalgae (blue vertical arrows) resulting in new LC omega-3 containing oilseeds. elo, elongase; des, desaturase.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4042577&req=5

nutrients-06-02035-f002: Schematic showing synthesis of shorter-chain fatty acids in land plants (black horizontal arrows), followed by addition of genes from marine microalgae (blue vertical arrows) resulting in new LC omega-3 containing oilseeds. elo, elongase; des, desaturase.
Mentions: The availability of the SDA-containing Echium oil (around 14% SDA of total FA) has enabled this potential EPA/DHA precursor, which is one step more advanced than ALA to be trialed in animal, including farmed fish, and human nutrition research. The general hypothesis driving this line of research has been that animals and farmed fish fed SDA oils would produce tissue containing greater proportion of EPA and DHA than those fed ALA oils. This is based on the assumption that the inefficiency in the biosynthesis of EPA and DHA from ALA is related to the rate-limiting step of converting ALA to SDA (Figure 2).

Bottom Line: Benefits of long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils) for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented.The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies.However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CSIRO Animal, Foods and Health Sciences, P.O. Box 10041, Adelaide BC, SA 5000, Australia. Soressa.Kitessa@csiro.au.

ABSTRACT
Benefits of long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils) for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented. The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies. These developments have led to increased consumer demand for LC omega-3 oils and, coupled with increasing global population, will impact on future sustainable supply of fish. Seafood supply from aquaculture has risen over the past decades and it relies on harvest of wild catch fisheries also for its fish oil needs. Alternate sources of LC omega-3 oils are being pursued, including genetically modified soybean rich in shorter-chain stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3). However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA. A recent breakthrough has seen the demonstration of a land plant-based oil enriched in DHA, and with omega-6 PUFA levels close to that occurring in marine sources of EPA and DHA. We review alternative sources of DHA supply with emphasis on the need for land plant oils containing EPA and DHA.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus