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DHA-containing oilseed: a timely solution for the sustainability issues surrounding fish oil sources of the health-benefitting long-chain omega-3 oils.

Kitessa SM, Abeywardena M, Wijesundera C, Nichols PD - Nutrients (2014)

Bottom Line: Benefits of long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils) for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented.The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies.However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CSIRO Animal, Foods and Health Sciences, P.O. Box 10041, Adelaide BC, SA 5000, Australia. Soressa.Kitessa@csiro.au.

ABSTRACT
Benefits of long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils) for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented. The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies. These developments have led to increased consumer demand for LC omega-3 oils and, coupled with increasing global population, will impact on future sustainable supply of fish. Seafood supply from aquaculture has risen over the past decades and it relies on harvest of wild catch fisheries also for its fish oil needs. Alternate sources of LC omega-3 oils are being pursued, including genetically modified soybean rich in shorter-chain stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3). However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA. A recent breakthrough has seen the demonstration of a land plant-based oil enriched in DHA, and with omega-6 PUFA levels close to that occurring in marine sources of EPA and DHA. We review alternative sources of DHA supply with emphasis on the need for land plant oils containing EPA and DHA.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

The potential future sources of omega-3 LC-PUFA are shown, with current sources (left) being seafood and microalgae, with possible future sources through genetically engineered plants also indicated at the right.
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nutrients-06-02035-f001: The potential future sources of omega-3 LC-PUFA are shown, with current sources (left) being seafood and microalgae, with possible future sources through genetically engineered plants also indicated at the right.

Mentions: The past decade has also seen several groups using genetic engineering to allow oilseed crops to produce LC omega-3 oils [23]. As this research field has progressed, important breakthrough steps have included: the isolation and characterization of genes from the marine microalgae encoding front-end desaturases involved in DHA biosynthesis [47], the isolation of highly efficient desaturases and elongases [48,49,50,51], the use of genes with omega-3 substrate preference [49,50,51] and the development and use of a land plant (tobacco) leaf-based assay using interchangeable design principles to rapidly assemble multistep recombinant pathways [52]. Progress with research on insertion of microalgal-derived genes leading to DHA production into a range of omega-3 C18 PUFA accumulating land plants has been reviewed [2,53,54,55]. Transfer of genes from microorganisms to land plants has seen accumulation in oilseeds of SDA, EPA and DHA [2] (Table 2, Figure 1). Good progress has been made in engineering the EPA genes into crop plants, with several groups reporting the production of EPA at levels similar to that observed in bulk fish oil (approximately 18%) [56,57]. The conversion of the C20 EPA to the particularly important C22 DHA, however, had been problematic with many attempts resulting in the accumulation of EPA and DPA, but until very recently little DHA [56,58,59,60,61,62].


DHA-containing oilseed: a timely solution for the sustainability issues surrounding fish oil sources of the health-benefitting long-chain omega-3 oils.

Kitessa SM, Abeywardena M, Wijesundera C, Nichols PD - Nutrients (2014)

The potential future sources of omega-3 LC-PUFA are shown, with current sources (left) being seafood and microalgae, with possible future sources through genetically engineered plants also indicated at the right.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4042577&req=5

nutrients-06-02035-f001: The potential future sources of omega-3 LC-PUFA are shown, with current sources (left) being seafood and microalgae, with possible future sources through genetically engineered plants also indicated at the right.
Mentions: The past decade has also seen several groups using genetic engineering to allow oilseed crops to produce LC omega-3 oils [23]. As this research field has progressed, important breakthrough steps have included: the isolation and characterization of genes from the marine microalgae encoding front-end desaturases involved in DHA biosynthesis [47], the isolation of highly efficient desaturases and elongases [48,49,50,51], the use of genes with omega-3 substrate preference [49,50,51] and the development and use of a land plant (tobacco) leaf-based assay using interchangeable design principles to rapidly assemble multistep recombinant pathways [52]. Progress with research on insertion of microalgal-derived genes leading to DHA production into a range of omega-3 C18 PUFA accumulating land plants has been reviewed [2,53,54,55]. Transfer of genes from microorganisms to land plants has seen accumulation in oilseeds of SDA, EPA and DHA [2] (Table 2, Figure 1). Good progress has been made in engineering the EPA genes into crop plants, with several groups reporting the production of EPA at levels similar to that observed in bulk fish oil (approximately 18%) [56,57]. The conversion of the C20 EPA to the particularly important C22 DHA, however, had been problematic with many attempts resulting in the accumulation of EPA and DPA, but until very recently little DHA [56,58,59,60,61,62].

Bottom Line: Benefits of long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils) for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented.The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies.However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CSIRO Animal, Foods and Health Sciences, P.O. Box 10041, Adelaide BC, SA 5000, Australia. Soressa.Kitessa@csiro.au.

ABSTRACT
Benefits of long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils) for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented. The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies. These developments have led to increased consumer demand for LC omega-3 oils and, coupled with increasing global population, will impact on future sustainable supply of fish. Seafood supply from aquaculture has risen over the past decades and it relies on harvest of wild catch fisheries also for its fish oil needs. Alternate sources of LC omega-3 oils are being pursued, including genetically modified soybean rich in shorter-chain stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3). However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA. A recent breakthrough has seen the demonstration of a land plant-based oil enriched in DHA, and with omega-6 PUFA levels close to that occurring in marine sources of EPA and DHA. We review alternative sources of DHA supply with emphasis on the need for land plant oils containing EPA and DHA.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus