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Vitamin K₂ therapy for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

Iwamoto J - Nutrients (2014)

Bottom Line: Menatetrenone is the brand name of a synthetic vitamin K2 that is chemically identical to menaquinone-4.Small RCTs showed that menatetrenone monotherapy decreased serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) concentrations, modestly increased lumbar spine BMD, and reduced the incidence of fractures (mainly vertebral fracture), and that combined alendronate and menatetrenone therapy enhanced the decrease in serum ucOC concentrations and further increased femoral neck BMD.This review of the literature revealed positive evidence for the effects of menatetrenone monotherapy on fracture incidence in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan. jiwamoto@a8.keio.jp.

ABSTRACT
Vitamin K may play an important role in the prevention of fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Menatetrenone is the brand name of a synthetic vitamin K2 that is chemically identical to menaquinone-4. The present review study aimed to clarify the effect of menatetrenone on the skeleton in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, by reviewing the results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the literature. RCTs that investigated the effect of menatetrenone on bone mineral density (BMD), measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and fracture incidence in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, were identified by a PubMed search for literature published in English. Eight studies met the criteria for RCTs. Small RCTs showed that menatetrenone monotherapy decreased serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) concentrations, modestly increased lumbar spine BMD, and reduced the incidence of fractures (mainly vertebral fracture), and that combined alendronate and menatetrenone therapy enhanced the decrease in serum ucOC concentrations and further increased femoral neck BMD. This review of the literature revealed positive evidence for the effects of menatetrenone monotherapy on fracture incidence in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Further studies are required to clarify the efficacy of menatetrenone in combination with bisphosphonates against fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

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Naturally occurring forms of vitamin K—Phylloquinone (vitamin K1) and menaquinones (vitamin K2).
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nutrients-06-01971-f001: Naturally occurring forms of vitamin K—Phylloquinone (vitamin K1) and menaquinones (vitamin K2).

Mentions: There are two types of naturally occurring forms of vitamin K, phylloquinone and menaquinones. All forms of vitamin K contain a 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone ring as part of their structure, and individual forms differ in the length and degree of saturation of a variable aliphatic side chain attached at the 3-position (Figure 1). Phylloquinone (vitamin K1) is the major type of dietary vitamin K, while menaquinone-4 (vitamin K2) is the major form of vitamin K in the tissues, including bone. Vitamin K1 is supplied by the diet, especially in green leafy vegetables, while vitamin K2 is synthesized by bacteria in the gut. A number of foods also contain vitamin K2, notably natto (fermented soy beans), cheese, and curds, with natto being the richest source of vitamin K known.


Vitamin K₂ therapy for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

Iwamoto J - Nutrients (2014)

Naturally occurring forms of vitamin K—Phylloquinone (vitamin K1) and menaquinones (vitamin K2).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4042573&req=5

nutrients-06-01971-f001: Naturally occurring forms of vitamin K—Phylloquinone (vitamin K1) and menaquinones (vitamin K2).
Mentions: There are two types of naturally occurring forms of vitamin K, phylloquinone and menaquinones. All forms of vitamin K contain a 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone ring as part of their structure, and individual forms differ in the length and degree of saturation of a variable aliphatic side chain attached at the 3-position (Figure 1). Phylloquinone (vitamin K1) is the major type of dietary vitamin K, while menaquinone-4 (vitamin K2) is the major form of vitamin K in the tissues, including bone. Vitamin K1 is supplied by the diet, especially in green leafy vegetables, while vitamin K2 is synthesized by bacteria in the gut. A number of foods also contain vitamin K2, notably natto (fermented soy beans), cheese, and curds, with natto being the richest source of vitamin K known.

Bottom Line: Menatetrenone is the brand name of a synthetic vitamin K2 that is chemically identical to menaquinone-4.Small RCTs showed that menatetrenone monotherapy decreased serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) concentrations, modestly increased lumbar spine BMD, and reduced the incidence of fractures (mainly vertebral fracture), and that combined alendronate and menatetrenone therapy enhanced the decrease in serum ucOC concentrations and further increased femoral neck BMD.This review of the literature revealed positive evidence for the effects of menatetrenone monotherapy on fracture incidence in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan. jiwamoto@a8.keio.jp.

ABSTRACT
Vitamin K may play an important role in the prevention of fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Menatetrenone is the brand name of a synthetic vitamin K2 that is chemically identical to menaquinone-4. The present review study aimed to clarify the effect of menatetrenone on the skeleton in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, by reviewing the results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the literature. RCTs that investigated the effect of menatetrenone on bone mineral density (BMD), measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and fracture incidence in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, were identified by a PubMed search for literature published in English. Eight studies met the criteria for RCTs. Small RCTs showed that menatetrenone monotherapy decreased serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) concentrations, modestly increased lumbar spine BMD, and reduced the incidence of fractures (mainly vertebral fracture), and that combined alendronate and menatetrenone therapy enhanced the decrease in serum ucOC concentrations and further increased femoral neck BMD. This review of the literature revealed positive evidence for the effects of menatetrenone monotherapy on fracture incidence in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Further studies are required to clarify the efficacy of menatetrenone in combination with bisphosphonates against fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus